CBD and THC are both cannabinoids, but they can have differing effects on the body. Learn more about the differences in the effects and benefits of CBD vs, THC. What are the major differences between CBD gummies and THC gummies? A lot actually! Here is our guide covering the low-down between the two. Consuming cannabis in the form of edibles has been aroundÂ for thousands of years. Bhang, a refreshing cannabis drink, dates back as far as 1000 BC. The ancient text ArtharvavedaÂ describes the drink as a beneficial herb that "releases anxiety." Today, edibles containing cannabis plant cannabinoids like CBD and THC are
CBD vs. THC: What’s the Difference?
Both come from cannabis, but THC is psychoactive and CBD is not
Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology.
Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more.
Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital.
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Cannabis contains over 113 different chemical compounds known as cannabinoids. Cannabidiol (CBD) and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are two types of chemical compounds derived from cannabis. In recent years, interest has grown in the potential health effects and benefits of cannabis. Much of this interest has centered on these two cannabinoids.
This interest will likely grow as cannabis and marijuana products become legal in more states. A number of different products have emerged that contain CBD, THC, or both that are designed to alleviate ailments such as stress, anxiety, and insomnia. To understand these products’ side effects and potential benefits, it is important to first understand the differences between CBD and THC.
What Is CBD?
Cannabidiol, usually referred to as CBD, is the second most prevalent chemical compound found in cannabis. First discovered during the 1940s, CBD has recently become more popular as a natural treatment for a range of conditions. It can be derived from hemp or from marijuana. Hemp-derived CBD still contains trace amounts of THC, while marijuana-derived CBD may contain more.
What Is THC?
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, is the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), THC activates the brain’s reward system by signaling the release of the brain chemical dopamine.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in mood and pleasure. By triggering a higher-than-normal release of dopamine, THC causes people to experience feelings of euphoria. THC is often administered by smoking marijuana, but it can also be found as an ingredient in capsules, edibles, and oils.
CBD vs. THC: Key Differences
THC and CBD have an effect on the endocannabinoid system, a system that plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis. Researchers are still working to understand the ins and outs of this complex system, but they do know that it is associated with processes including memory, appetite, sleep, mood, and fertility.
While THC and CBD share similarities, there are some key differences between the two compounds.
Psychoactive (produces a high)
Sourced from marijuana
Non-psychoactive (does not produce a high)
Typically sourced from hemp
CBD vs. THC: Psychoactive Properties
CBD and THC affect different receptors in the brain. Because of this, CBD typically does not have psychoactive effects—in other words, it won’t cause you to get high.
THC, on the other hand, does have psychoactive effects. It is the compound that produces the high that people associate with marijuana.
CBD vs. THC: Chemical Structure
Both CBD and THC have a chemical structure that is similar to the body’s natural endocannabinoids. Endocannabinoids are neurotransmitters that act in the brain.
Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that relay signals between nerve cells in the body. They play an important role in a wide range of functions including sleep, pain, appetite, mood, and the immune system.
CBD and THC have the same molecular structure, but there are differences in how these molecules are arranged that are responsible for the differing effects they have. By mimicking endocannabinoids, they bind with receptors and cause different effects in the body.
CBD vs. THC: Sources
While CBD can come from either hemp or marijuana, it is often derived from hemp in order to avoid the addition of larger amounts of THC. THC, on the other hand, is derived from marijuana.
CBD that comes from marijuana may contain more THC, which may not be ideal for people who are trying to avoid THC. Some CBD products that are produced from cannabis, for example, may contain more THC than the label suggests.
CBD vs. THC: Potential Benefits
While research on the potential health benefits of THC, CBD, and other cannabinoids is still in the early stages, there is evidence that these substances may be helpful for conditions including:
- Symptoms of HIV/AIDS
- Opioid dependence
- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
- Inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBD)
- Multiple sclerosis
- Sleep difficulties
- Movement disorders
While CBD and THC often have similar effects and are often used to treat many of the same ailments, there are some differences.
CBD is often used to alleviate symptoms associated with:
THC, which may be administered as medical marijuana, may be used to alleviate symptoms of a number of conditions. It may be helpful for conditions such as:
- Nausea; it may help alleviate nausea caused by cancer treatment
- Pain associated with conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, and migraine headaches
- Poor appetite; including appetite problems caused by cancer treatment
CBD vs. THC for Pain Relief
Both CBD and THC can both be beneficial for pain relief. Because THC has psychoactive effects, it may produce more immediate pain relief. However, CBD can help reduce inflammation, which is useful for long-term effectiveness. Some evidence suggests that taking both CBD and THC may provide the greatest pain relief. In one study, people who took a combination of CBD and THC experienced greater pain relief than those who took THC alone.
While cannabis itself has not been FDA approved to treat any condition, there are a few drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that contain CBD or THC.
- Epidiolex contains CBD and has been approved to treat seizures associated with two severe types of epilepsy—Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome
- Marinol and Syndros are drugs that contain dronabinol, a synthetic THC. These drugs are used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy during cancer treatment.
- Cesamet contains nabilone, a synthetic substance that is similar to THC. This drug is used to treat weight loss and appetite problems associated with chemotherapy and HIV/AIDS.
CBD vs. THC: Side Effects
Some research suggests that CBD and THC are generally safe and result in few side effects.
However, while these substances appear safe, that does not necessarily mean that you won’t experience some unwanted effects. Some adverse effects that have been reported include:
- Changes in mood and appetite
- Feelings of anxiety or other mood changes
- Nausea and dizziness
THC use may also result in unpleasant side effects such as increased heart rate, dry mouth, and memory loss.
Marijuana itself can have a number of short-term and long-term adverse effects, including impaired short-term memory, altered judgment, and impaired coordination. Research also suggests that marijuana can alter brain development and may lead to cognitive impairment.
NIDA also notes that THC alters how the hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex function. These areas of the brain are important in the formation of new memories and the ability to shift attention from one thing to the next. This not only affects a person’s ability to learn and form new memories, but it also makes it difficult for people to perform difficult tasks.
Legality of CBD and THC
When choosing CBD or THC products, it is also important to consider their legality. Both marijuana and THC are included in the U.S. Controlled Substances Act, which means that they are not legal under federal law.
As of July 2020, 33 states and Washington, D.C. have enacted policies allowing medical marijuana and products containing THC to be prescribed by a doctor. Some states also allow recreational use of marijuana and THC-containing products.
Although CBD in certain forms is legal in most states, the specifics of the legality of any THC or CBD product can vary from one state to the next. Several states have also approved the use of marijuana and THC for recreational purposes.
Because the laws regarding the use of cannabis and cannabis products are rapidly changing, you should always check your state’s laws before using products containing CBD or THC.
How to Take CBD and THC
Both THC and CBD can be consumed in a number of different forms. THC may be consumed as marijuana by smoking, but a number of other cannabis products are also available including:
- Vape products
- Edibles including gummies and chocolates
- Beverages containing marijuana oil
Like THC, CBD can also be consumed in a number of different forms. CBD oils can be formulated for vaping, although there have been recent concerns about the health dangers posed by vaping.
It can also be added to lotions and salves to apply to skin. It is important to note that the effects of these topical products will be localized since they are not being ingested.
CBD can also be taken orally as a tincture, oil, capsule, or spray. Edible CBD products are also popular and include gummies, candies, and beverages.
When choosing CBD products, it is also important to consider its formulation. Isolate products contain only CBD. Broad-spectrum products contain other cannabinoids with the exception of THC, while full-spectrum CBD products contain CBD, THC, and other cannabinoids.
Which One Should You Take?
The product you choose may depend on the effects you are trying to achieve. If you are trying to reduce stress or sleep better, for example, CBD may provide benefits without the negative side effects associated with THC. THC might be a better choice for symptoms or conditions for which the substance has demonstrated benefits, such as tremors or poor appetite.
The Entourage Effect
Some research suggests that the potential therapeutic effects of THC and CBD tend to be greater when the two cannabinoids are taken together at the same time. This phenomenon is known as the entourage effect.
Taking CBD along with THC has also been shown to help reduce some of the unwanted effects that THC may have. For example, one study suggests that CBD may potentially reduce some of the negative cognitive effects of regular cannabis use.
For example, people who use cannabis, particularly when it has high THC levels, may have a greater risk of experiencing psychiatric symptoms such as paranoia, anxiety, and psychosis. Studies have found, however, that CBD may help mitigate these effects.
One study found that CBD helped block some of the potential psychiatric effects of THC. The authors of the study suggest that such findings have important implications for the use of cannabis products. People who are prone to unwanted side effects, for example, may be able to still gain the potential health benefits by sticking to products that are low in THC and higher in CBD content.
It is also important to remember that CBD and THC work in a number of different areas of the brain, and researchers do not yet fully understand the effects that these cannabinoids have, either alone or in conjunction with one another.
Some evidence suggests that the combined effects of CBD and THC may be dependent on dose. A 2019 study, for example, found that low doses of CBD actually played a role in amplifying the psychoactive effects of THC, while high doses of CBD reduced THC’s effects.
Drug Testing CBD or THC
Because THC is the main psychoactive substance in marijuana, it can be detected on most standard drug tests. CBD may be detectable as well, but many drug tests are not designed to look for cannabidiol.
However, many CBD products do contain trace amounts of THC. While these amounts are small, they may still be detectable if you are consuming large quantities of CBD or if the products you are using contain more THC than the packaging label claims.
Research has found, for example, that as many as 70% of CBD products are mislabeled and contain significantly more THC than labels suggest. Because of the lack of regulation of these products, it is difficult to know exactly how much THC you are actually getting.
There is no way to tell between THC and CBD based on appearance, smell, taste, or texture. Purchasing products from reputable manufacturers and retailers may help ensure that you are getting the type of product you want.
Both THC and CBD are stored in body fat, which means that both can potentially be detected on drug tests for some time after you have stopped using them.
Before You Take CBD or THC
THC and CBD may also have an effect on some health conditions and can interact with certain medications, so you should always use caution before taking these products. These substances might impact how medications are metabolized by your body. They can also heighten feelings of anxiety in some cases.
Before choosing a THC or CBD product, it is important to check your state laws to ensure that these products are legal where you live. Federal law mandates that hemp-derived CBD products should contain less than 0.3% THC, but even those trace amounts are still illegal in some states.
A Word From Verywell
Both THC and CBD may have a number of benefits, but you should always talk to your doctor first before you try any products containing these cannabinoids. Both CBD and THC hold promise for alleviating symptoms and even treating some medical and mental health conditions, but research in this area is still relatively new and further investigation is needed.
Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Cannabis (marijuana) and cannabinoids: what you need to know.
Perry D, Ton J, Allan GM. Evidence for THC versus CBD in cannabinoids. Can Fam Physician. 2018;64(7):519. PMID: 30002029; PMCID: PMC6042662.
Volkow ND, Baler RD, Compton WM, Weiss SR. Adverse health effects of marijuana use. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(23):2219-2227. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1402309
Morgan CJ, Schafer G, Freeman TP, Curran HV. Impact of cannabidiol on the acute memory and psychotomimetic effects of smoked cannabis: naturalistic study: naturalistic study [corrected] [published correction appears in Br J Psychiatry. 2010 Nov;197:416]. Br J Psychiatry. 2010;197(4):285-290. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.110.077503
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By Kendra Cherry
Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology.
CBD Gummies vs. THC Gummies: The Low-Down About CBD and THC Edibles
Consuming cannabis in the form of edibles has been around for thousands of years.
Bhang, a refreshing cannabis drink, dates back as far as 1000 BC. The ancient text Artharvaveda describes the drink as a beneficial herb that “releases anxiety.”
Today, edibles containing cannabis plant cannabinoids like CBD and THC are becoming increasingly sought-after. CBD gummies, for example, are a popular choice for alleviating a variety of ailments.
While most people hear the term edible and think of pot brownies that’ll get you “high,” that’s not typically the case.
In this guide, we’ll break down the main differences between THC gummies and CBD gummies. Keep reading to learn all about them!
THC vs. CBD
Before we delve into the many variations of CBD edibles and THC edibles, it’s important first to understand the difference between the 2 cannabinoids.
Stretching back over 5,000 years, cannabis is one of the oldest plants to be used for medicinal purposes.
Still, it wasn’t until the early 1940s that THC and CBD were extracted from cannabis for the first time. Over 100 cannabinoids have been cataloged since that day, but THC and CBD remain the most researched and used.
CBD and THC have the same molecular structure. Both cannabinoids have 30 hydrogen atoms, 21 carbon atoms, and 2 oxygen atoms. The slight difference in how those atoms are arranged account for the differing effects of the 2 cannabinoids on the body.
CBD and THC are very similar to the body’s endocannabinoids. Due to their similarities, they can easily interact with the body’s cannabinoid receptors to help regulate certain bodily functions and changes.
Their interaction affects the release of neurotransmitters in the brain. Those neurotransmitters are chemicals that are responsible for relaying messages between cells in the body.
Endocannabinoids play an essential role in influencing immune function, stress, pain, sleep, anxiety, and many other bodily functions.
CBD is a compound that is non-psychoactive. In other words, it doesn’t create the “high” associated with THC.
CBD binds weakly to CB1 receptors and can interfere with the binding of THC to those receptors. It can dampen the psychoactive effects of THC, which is why many cannabis users find solace in products containing a balance of both cannabinoids.
Despite their similar chemical structures, CBD and THC don’t have the same psychoactive effects.
THC binds with the body’s CB1 receptors in the brain. It can produce the “high” often associated with cannabis.
The higher the THC content in an edible or cannabis product, the more psychoactive effects you’ll experience. THC makes you feel whereas CBD effects aren’t necessarily felt, but rather, experienced.
THC is illegal on a federal level, but many states have made it legal either recreationally or medically.
What’s an Edible?
Before you shop for CBD edibles online, you must know what to look for.
While an edible can be anything that you eat, edibles have long been associated with terms like “marijuana” or “pot brownies.” Edibles that get you “high” and produce intoxicating psychoactive effects are THC edibles.
CBD is non-intoxicating. It doesn’t cause a high, and thus, people consume CBD oil edibles for different reasons.
Cannabinoids are extracted from the cannabis plant and then cooked into gummies and other foods to make edibles. Some edibles contain only THC, some contain only CBD, whereas others contain both cannabinoids.
People who are asthmatic or prefer not to inhale cannabis opt to consume edibles instead of smoking.
How Long Does It Take Edibles to Work?
Edibles are much different than oils, tinctures, and vapes. The primary difference is the length of time they take to kick in. While a tincture (edible oil) only takes around 15 minutes to start working, edibles can take much longer.
CBD edibles are quite different from CBD oils. For those used to taking CBD oil, edibles might take a little getting used to.
An edible can take anywhere from 30 minutes to 2 hours to take effect. Metabolism, height, activity level, weight, and what you’ve eaten in a given day can all play a role in determining how long it takes for your body to process an edible.
You can’t overdose on CBD, so there isn’t much worry about taking too much. However, if you do take more after not feeling anything, you could increase your risk of experiencing the side effects of over-consumption, which is why it’s always best to wait.
CBD is regarded as generally safe. There has not yet been a recorded overdose, and it doesn’t produce the same psychoactive effects as THC.
In other words, you won’t eat too many CBD edibles and feel “high.”
If you take too much, however, you might experience nausea, diarrhea, a headache, fatigue, dizziness, or dry mouth. If you happen to experience any unwanted side effects, try the next day again and begin with a smaller dose.
CBD doesn’t exhibit any effects that indicate abuse or dependence potential. There isn’t any evidence to date that exhibits public health-related issues associated with pure CBD use.
THC edibles are different in that you can eat too many and feel overwhelmed. If that occurs, the best thing to do is to drink lots of water and add carbs to your stomach to help your body balance out.
THC edibles can make you hungry, cause dry mouth, and have strong psychoactive effects, depending on how much you eat.
If you do decide to take THC edibles, make sure to start with a smaller dose and to wait long enough before you consume more.
Full-Spectrum and Isolate Edibles
Just like tinctures, flower, and vape pens, you can also purchase isolate and full-spectrum edibles.
Isolates typically contain pure CBD, whereas a full-spectrum cannabis product contains the entire extract from the plant.
Which product you choose depends wholly on your personal preferences and needs. Many people prefer to use a CBD isolate. They may not want the psychoactive effects of THC, or they want to ensure that if they’re drug tested at work, there’s no chance of a trace of THC in their bloodstream.
Full-spectrum extracts contain all the phytocannabinoids naturally found in the cannabis plant. Full-spectrum gummies contain CBD, THC, terpenes, and many other cannabinoids.
Some full-spectrum extracts, derived from hemp plants, contain everything yet with a low concentration of THC (less than 0.3%). They don’t contain enough THC to make you feel “high,” but they could give you a false positive on a drug test, especially if you consume your full-spectrum gummies regularly.
Ingesting multiple cannabinoids is often said to produce an “entourage effect” in the body, in which the benefits of various terpenes and cannabinoids positively impact the body.
It’s important to do your research to determine which product appeals to you, though. If edibles are new for you, we recommend starting with a CBD-isolate edible.
CBD Is Natural
CBD edibles provide long-lasting relief. They’re broken down slowly in the digestive system, which means you can experience the calming effects for longer.
They’re easy to dose, as edibles always provide a pre-measured dose.
They’re tasty, and they provide whole-body effects that can help alleviate your ailments throughout the day.
CBD edibles come in an assortment of flavors, variety, shapes, and sizes. Plus, if you want to start small, you can always cut your first gummy in half.
It has been suggested that CBD products, and gummies especially, might help affect specific serotonin receptors in the way that many prescribed drugs do.
The difference is that CBD offers a 100% natural way to try and alleviate ailments without any dangerous side effects.
What to Look for in CBD Gummies
Before you buy CBD edibles, look for a reputable manufacturer that gets its ingredients from USA hemp plants. For CBD products, look for edibles that contain less than 0.3% THC.
It’s essential to also go with a brand whose products are 3rd-party lab-tested before being sold. This ensures the highest quality and consistency in edible products.
Look for positive customer reviews, not only in the products themselves but concerning customer service and accessibility.
Don’t Wait to Integrate CBD Gummies Into Your Life
CBD gummies are an excellent way to get through the many demands of daily life, without the psychoactive effects of THC.
The best CBD gummies should contain less than 0.3% THC and come from a reputable brand with reviews and 3rd-party lab testing to show for it.
With little to no presence of THC, you don’t have to worry about taking too much. However, it’s important to start with a lower dose so that you can gauge your body and determine what works best for you.
Are you ready to shop around? Check out our wide variety of high-quality, 3rd-party tested, CBD gummies! Do you have questions first? Contact us with any questions or concerns. We are here to help!