CBD Oil For Dogs Fda Approved

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Cannabis products are all the rage, and we’re seeing CBD products everywhere—including pet shops. So what’s the deal with CBD? Are there any safety concerns? Find out more! What's the latest on CBD oil for dogs? For your dog's health and happiness, get the facts, pros, and cons about CBD for dogs from Dr. Buzby.

CBD Oil For Dogs Fda Approved

Anywhere you look nowadays, you’re bound to spot something about marijuana and its components CBD (cannabidiol) and THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). With medical marijuana now legal in over half the states, and an increasing number of states legalizing recreational marijuana, there’s been a rise in CBD products (like oils and treats) in mainstream shops and retail chains. And recently, the trend has carried over to our four-legged-friends.

This is leading pet owners to ask: If marijuana or CBD is helpful for some people, can it help my pet? The ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) weighs in on this trending topic.

A Little Background

One of the first things to understand is a breakdown of the properties associated with marijuana and CBD. Marijuana, also known as Cannabis Sativa, is a plant. In the cannabis plant, both THC and CBD can be found to varying degrees. The plant contains many compounds, but the one it is most recognized for is THC. THC is considered a psychoactive substance, which means that it is a chemical that changes how the brain functions, and thus can cause alterations in perception, mood, consciousness or behavior. Lately, however, CBD has been getting more and more attention for its potential therapeutic and pain management effects.

What We Know

Unfortunately, there are many unanswered questions about the effects of marijuana and CBD in pets. But research into these effects is underway. Studies are slowly being done to look at the potential benefits of CBD for controlling pain from conditions such as osteoarthritis, calming anxious pets and if it may help with treating epilepsy in dogs.

Like with any product, you should consult with your veterinarian to determine if CBD products are right for your pet, and what the proper dosage should be. There’s a lot of information online that can be misleading, and consulting with a professional should always be your first step. That’s especially important if your pet is on other medications. Mixing medications and substances can affect animals’ livers. Just like with any medication or pet product, you want to be careful of overdosing your pet and be sure to keep any CBD products safely up and out of paws’ reach.

Legal Tangles

The laws around use of cannabis in people and pets have been slow in keeping up with public opinion. The DEA still considers marijuana a Schedule I drug, meaning it is not considered to have any medical use.

Even in states where medical marijuana is legal for people, it is not legal for pets. CBD is regulated by the FDA and currently there are no FDA approved CBD products for pets. In 2018, hemp, a cannabis plant that naturally has less than 0.3% THC, was taken off the federal controlled substances list.

Many companies are marketing products to pets as hemp-based products to skirt the current legal status of marijuana and CBD for pets. However, since these products are not FDA approved, they do not undergo the same quality control measures as medications do, which could potentially prove to be problematic.

What’s Next

With public opinion largely being positive for marijuana and CBD, states are starting to look more closely at the laws and starting to reconsider them. Furthermore, with the added attention, more studies are looking at the potential effects and benefits CBD and marijuana may hold for pets. Many veterinarians are recommending CBD oils and treats for animals with certain conditions, and the popularity of this growing trend doesn’t seem to be slowing down any time soon.

APCC will stay on top of new studies and research as they develop, and keep you informed to help keep your pets happy and healthy.

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If you suspect your pet has been exposed to any poisonous substances or ingested something dangerous, contact your veterinarian or call Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) at 888-426-4435 immediately.

CBD Oil for Dogs: Facts, Benefits, Concerns [2022]

What are the benefits of CBD oil for dogs? What are the concerns about CBD and dogs? CBD oil has become an increasingly hot topic in human medicine and veterinary medicine. Integrative veterinarian Dr. Julie Buzby breaks down the pros and cons. Get the latest facts, concerns, and benefits that dog parents need to know.

CBD oil for dogs: a rapidly changing landscape

In 2018, the FDA approved the first naturally derived CBD product, Epidiolex®, for controlling severe seizures in children. The research behind CBD oil for veterinary use is slowly growing, but the legal aspects remain complicated and messy.

Our veterinary team at Dr. Buzby’s—The Senior Dog Company has been researching CBD oil for dogs. For years, we’ve been discussing up-to-date information with veterinary colleagues, interviewing experts in the field, and attending lectures at veterinary conferences. At the state and federal level, information changes frequently. So much so, that it feels like it’s almost daily.

This impacts veterinarians’ ability to recommend CBD for their canine patients and discuss it with clients. Though the landscape is rapidly changing, we’re proud to share what we currently know regarding CBD and dogs.

What is CBD?

Let’s start with the basics. There are over 113 different naturally occurring compounds that can be derived from the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa. The two most well-known compounds are delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Different strains of the same hemp plant can have different levels of THC and CBD. Interestingly, the body (human and animal) has different receptors for both THC and CBD.

THC is the compound we associate with marijuana. It is responsible for the psychoactive effect, or “high” feeling after an individual smokes or cooks the marijuana plant. THC binds to CBD1 receptors in the brain that are associated with emotions, coordination, movement, memories, appetite, and pain. CBD1 receptors also are present throughout the body. THC products can be toxic to dogs in high enough doses.

CBD, on the other hand, does not have the same effects on the brain as THC. The majority of the receptors for CBD (CBD2 receptors) are associated with the immune system. When CBD binds to these receptors, it can help decrease pain and inflammation as well as trigger the body to produce its own cannabinoids, which can decrease pain.

Limiting the amount of THC in hemp

The Farm Bill, signed on December 20, 2018, legalized the production of the hemp plant as long as it contains less than or equal to 0.3% THC on a dry weight basis. This means that hemp with less than 0.3% THC is no longer considered a controlled substance.

Additionally, the USDA published the final rule regulating the production of hemp in the U.S. in January 2021. The final rule established requirements for licensing and testing THC concentrations in hemp. The goal is to encourage growing hemp of known chemical concentrations to stabilize CBD and THC concentrations in CBD products.

Keep in mind that legality varies at the state level. As you’re probably aware, state laws regarding marijuana are changing all the time.

What are the potential health benefits and uses of CBD oil in canine patients?

What are the pros or potential health benefits of CBD oil for dogs? Let’s discuss.

First of all, in human medicine, CBD oil is being studied and used for chronic pain management, epilepsy, cancer, anxiety, and many other uses. Regarding chronic pain, a study done in mice and rats showed that CBD oil helped reduce inflammation. Also, in a study done on humans, CBD oil reduced the use of opioids (oxycodone, for example) by 64%.

Preliminary research done in cancer cells shows that CBD may be involved in blocking the signals for reproduction in cancer cells. Finally, CBD may have benefits for patients with anxiety disorders by increasing dopamine. (It is worth noting that THC has the potential to make anxiety worse by increasing paranoia.)

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The following two benefits have studies to back them up:

1. Research study on CBD and dogs shows it may help manage seizures.

In dogs, two studies have recently been published regarding CBD use for seizures and pain management.

A study by Colorado State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine showed an 89% reduction in seizures in dogs with seizure disorders. The study itself was very small—only nine dogs in the treatment group and seven dogs in the placebo group. However, it does demonstrate that CBD oil may help manage seizures in dogs. Colorado State University is currently conducting a larger study to more thoroughly evaluate CBD use in seizure dogs.

2. Research study shows improvement for dogs with arthritis.

Pet parents who have used CBD oil in their pets have reported improvements in gait, sleep, and appetite. Researchers at Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine evaluated the use of CBD oil in dogs using the gold standard double-blind study. This means both the researchers and the dog owners did not know which treatment the dog was getting. Theoretically, the results are more accurate from a scientific basis.

Of the 22 dogs with arthritis enrolled in the study, 16 dogs ultimately finished the trial. Dogs received either CBD oil or a placebo oil (olive oil mixed with anise and peppermint oil to have the same scent as the CBD oil) for four weeks, followed by a two-week washout period, then the opposite treatment for four more weeks. In this manner, all dogs were given both CBD oil and “sham” oil for one month each.

Dogs were evaluated based on owner questionnaires, veterinary physical exams, Canine Brief Pain Inventory score, Hudson activity score, and blood work (CBC and biochemical profile).

It is important to note that the dogs included in the study were allowed to stay on current medications such as NSAIDs (examples include Rimadyl, Meloxicam, Deramaxx, etc.), fish oil supplements and/or glucosamine/chondroitin supplements—as long as there were no changes made within the four weeks up to the study or during the ten weeks of the study. However, dogs were taken off Tramadol for dogs and/or Gabapentin for dogs two weeks prior to starting the research.

The study yielded two key pieces of information:
  • First, dogs on CBD oil showed an improvement in their arthritis symptoms compared to dogs on the placebo oil.
  • Second, CBD oil was safely used concurrently with traditional arthritis management medications such as anti-inflammatory medications.

What are the concerns regarding CBD oil?

What the cons of CBD oil for dogs? There are five concerns regarding giving your dog CBD oil.

1. All CBD oil is not alike.

Because CBD oil is sold as a supplement, products are not subject to the same tight regulations and standards as pharmaceuticals approved by the FDA. There can be marked discrepancy in the CBD concentration reported on the label versus the CBD concentration in the actual product.

Why is this so important? When the CBD concentration differs from the actual product, a dog is at risk of being under or over dosed .

Three different types of CBD are available: full spectrum, broad spectrum, and isolate. Full spectrum hemp products contain THC, so should be avoided for use in dogs.

CBD oil for dogs products may be human grade, contain natural ingredients, be organic, vegan, etc. These factors do not necessarily indicate whether they are good or bad pet products.

2. CBD concentrations may vary significantly from the amount specified on the label.

The FDA issued warnings in 2015-2017 to certain companies for the CBD concentration not matching the labeled amount. A study in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) evaluated different CBD extracts online and allowed for the amount on the label to vary by 10%. 43% of products had a higher concentration than what was on the label and 26% had a lower amount than specified on the label.

3. Arsenic and other toxins may contaminate CBD oils.

Depending on how it is harvested and processed and what additives or preservatives are used, CBD oils are at risk for contamination. This includes:

  • Mycotoxins (a deadly toxic substance produced by a fungus)
  • Pesticides
  • Heavy metals including arsenic
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However, you can request a Certificate of Analysis from the company. This document should include a cannabinoid profile with test results showing the concentration of cannabinoids in the product, antimicrobial analysis, pesticide analysis, and elemental analysis to screen for lead and arsenic.

If you use a CBD product for your dog, make sure to check the ingredients. CBD oil products should be comprised of cannabanoid oil and a carrier oil such as hemp seed oil.

4. CBD oil is a legal “grey zone” for veterinarians.

CBD oil falls into a legal grey zone with the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), federal, and state regulations. Although the 2018 Farm Bill allowed for the production of specific hemp products, some states still ban CBD oil.

In the eyes of the DEA, marijuana and hemp are federally categorized as Schedule I drugs under the Controlled Substances Act, defined as having a high potential for abuse and no medical use. (Also on the list are Heroin and LSD, to give you a frame of reference.) However, state governments are given authority to determine if they will allow marijuana and hemp-based products to be manufactured and sold inside their state borders.

The Schedule I categorization by the DEA makes CBD the elephant in the exam room, so to speak. Many of my veterinary clients with senior canine companions suffering from osteoarthritis in dogs are asking me about pet CBD oil. Yet my hands are theoretically tied in recommending or prescribing the product. Why? Because according to federal law, medical professionals may not write prescriptions for Schedule I substances, and violators are subject to criminal prosecution.

Always make sure the read the label of your CBD product to ensure your pet is getting a quality product.

5. There is no FDA-approved veterinary CBD oil for dogs.

This categorization also makes research more difficult because there are extra hoops for researchers to jump through for Schedule I drugs. Further, there also is no veterinary CBD oil approved by the FDA. So state veterinary licensing boards default to holding veterinarians responsible for the guidelines established by the DEA. As a result, the American Veterinary Medical Association discourages veterinarians from even discussing CBD oil with pet owners due to legal concerns.

Promising results from dog owners

Anecdotally, a couple dozen of my patients are on CBD oil, in every case because their proactive owners heard about the product and decided to try it for their arthritic dogs. The dog owners have acquired CBD oil from a host of interesting sources—online, a relative, and a local lady who recently opened a side business selling CBD.

My veterinary clients pepper me with questions about how much CBD oil to give their dogs, safety concerns of using it along with other drugs their dogs take, and risks of long-term continual dosing. I apologize to my clients and defer their questions. Not because I am under a legal gag order but because I genuinely don’t (yet) have a lot of answers.

What can we hope for in the future regarding CBD oil for dogs?

Laws have significantly relaxed regarding hemp and cannabinoid products over the past several years. As more states change their laws regarding cannabinoids, more doors should hopefully open for veterinary use of these products.

Also, we’ve seen studies published indicating that CBD oil may have benefits in seizure and pain management for dogs. These are huge strides. Hopefully, laws will continue to relax to allow veterinarians to discuss CBD oil with their clients and to allow for more veterinary research.

Finally, we hope there will be more oversight for product quality and control so that consumers know they are getting a pure, safe product.

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