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CBD Vape: 5 Benefits of Vaping CBD

When it comes to the world of CBD, you have so many options. This is exciting for some people, while others like to stick to the most prevalent methods of CBD consumption. There’s no denying that in recent years vaping CBD has become one of these methods. In this article, we will take a deeper look at vaping CBD and some of the potential benefits that come with it. You never know, vaping CBD could become your preferred method of CBD consumption! Keep reading to find out more.

What is CBD Vape?

So, what is CBD? CBD comes from the cannabis plant, and it’s called a cannabinoid. There are different cannabinoids in the plant; however, CBD is one of the most scientifically researched. One common question surrounding CBD vaping is ‘how to vape CBD’, as people are curious as to how this method of consumption works. It’s important to note that you aren’t vaping CBD oil but rather CBD e-liquid. This is typically made up of CBD, vegetable glycerin (VG), propylene glycol (PG) and flavourings.

You will need to choose your dose of CBD, and then you can make a purchase. CBD pods and vape pens can come pre-filled, and they come with a battery and a coil that’s built into the device. You then follow the instructions on the device that you have purchased, but you will essentially need to inhale and breathe out for a specific number of puffs. It’s not recommended for newbies to take more than four puffs in one sitting. Allow yourself to start slowly, and this way, you can make an informed assessment on how vaping CBD makes you feel. From here, you may decide to adjust your dose or choose to purchase a higher or lower concentration of CBD.

#1 It Can Be Relaxing

Nowadays, with all the stresses and pressures of life, it’s only natural that we are seeking ways to relax. There’s evidence to suggest that CBD itself may be able to help people to manage their anxiety symptoms and stress. For example, studies suggest that CBD could help people to manage their post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, such as replaying negative memories and nightmares. The studies examined CBD as a single treatment and as a form of combined therapy with traditional medications and counselling. Furthermore, one study from 2011 indicated that CBD could help people with a social anxiety disorder (SAD). The participants in the study were either provided with 400mg of CBD or a placebo. The people who received CBD benefited from reduced anxiety symptoms. The act of vaping can be relaxing, particularly if you take some time out of your schedule to enjoy the simple act of breathing in and out.

#2 It May Help Manage Pain

CBD for pain is a common reason that people turn to the cannabinoid. Vaping CBD may be able to help people to manage their symptoms relating to pain. For instance, CBD may be able to help manage neuropathic pain. This type of pain is related to nerve damage, and it can be caused due to injuries, infections, and diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS). One review published in 2017 examined eleven trials with 1,219 patients. The authors reported that CBD was able to improve the pain related to chronic neuropathy pain. While more peer-reviewed research into this area of CBD wellness is needed, there is great potential here.

#3 You Can Vape On The Go

Some methods of CBD consumption don’t lend themselves to use while you are away from your home. For instance, some people would prefer to avoid the use of topical CBD or CBD oils while they are out and about due to the attention that it may attract from strangers. However, many people are vaping nowadays, and therefore vaping CBD won’t attract any kind of special attention. It’s important that you ensure it’s legal to vape CBD in the area you live in before you begin.

#4 The Fast Onset of Effects

Vaping CBD provides you with the quickest onset of effects in comparison to any other method, even CBD oil. When you inhale compounds through your lungs, it allows them to reach the bloodstream quickly. It’s thought that you will be able to feel the effects within five minutes. This is ideal for people who would prefer to experience the potential benefits of the cannabinoid within minutes. This is especially useful for those people who want fast relief from their stress or pain.

#5 Plenty of Different Options

There’s a wide variety of CBD vape pens, pods, cartridges and even personal diffusers with an essential oil vape, meaning that you will never become bored! This includes the different strengths of CBD content, as well as the different flavours that you can purchase. There’s cola flavoured CBD vape pens, strawberry, mint and more. This means that you can easily mix and match – there’s no need to stick with the same flavour the next time you need to purchase a new vape pen or CBD e-liquid. We would recommend that you research a company’s reviews before you purchase a CBD product. You should also ensure that they have a certificate of analysis (COA) and that the company uses third-party laboratories to test their products. This means that they are providing the customer with unbiased results.

Final Thoughts

And there we have it – five of the main benefits that accompany vaping CBD! We would recommend giving vaping CBD a try even if you don’t vape already. After all, the act itself is simple, especially if you choose to purchase a pre-filled vape product. It also lends itself to taking some time out for yourself, and this is perfect for people dealing with stress and anxiety. Of course, vaping won’t be everyone’s preferred method, and there will be some individuals out there who can’t vape due to health reasons, such as asthma. No need to worry, though – there are so many other options out there for you! Do your research, and you’ll soon figure out the right CBD avenue for you.

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Author

Mark Westall is the Founder and Editor of FAD magazine Founder and co-publisher of Art of Conversation and founder of the platform @worldoffad

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CBD Vape Oil: The 5 Best CBD Vape Products in the UK 2022

It feels like new CBD products enter the market every day, from CBD-infused beer to baking powder. Despite all the new and interesting CBD products out there, vape liquids remain a trusted favorite. And it’s easy to understand why.

Not only is vaping the quickest way to deliver the therapeutic benefits of CBD to our systems, but also vape oils come in a staggering variety of enticing flavors — sweet, fruity, minty, herby … the list goes on.

But, with so much available, how do you know which CBD vape e-liquid to choose? What do you look for to determine a quality CBD vape product? How can you find the safest and most effective CBD vape oil ? We’ve got some tips to help you know what to look for when you’re shopping for vape juice, and also some straightforward recommendations of our favorite vape liquid products for 2022. Let’s begin with the very best CBD vape oil UK products!

The Best CBD Vape Oil for 2022

There’s still plenty to say about how and why CBD works and how to select the best (and safest) CBD vape oils available in the UK. But, without further ado, let’s get to the best of the best — here are our picks for the 5 best UK CBD vape oil products to try in 2022!

The Top 5 CBD Vape Oils in the UK

3. Provacan CBD E-Liquid Unflavoured Vape Oil

4. ULU Peppermint E-Liquid

Meet the Winners: Top 5 CBD Vape Oils for 2022

Flavour and effectiveness are vital considerations in choosing a great CBD vape oil, and they carried great weight in our criteria for choosing the 5 best rated UK CBD vape oils. But, it’s important to remember some other crucial criteria when it comes to CBD products and to vape liquids.

Purity comes first and foremost in any CBD product, because the hemp plant (as we’ll see below) is excellent at absorbing toxins and pesticides in the soil where it grows. In addition, the methods used to extract the CBD from the hemp plant, and the thinning agents used in the creation of CBD vape liquid are of the utmost importance. Vegetable and propylene glycols are the agents considered to be of the highest quality, and they’re what we looked for in the products we selected — as well as the absence of addictive nicotine.

1. CBDfx Blue Raspberry CBD Vape Juice

Founded in the US in 2014, CBDfx quickly made a name for themselves in the CBD industry due to the purity and potency of their CBD products. Fortunately for us, they soon after expanded to the UK. CBDfx is a top choice for any CBD product — including CBD gummies , CBD tablets , CBD oils , CBD creams , and more — because they source organically grown, non-GMO hemp, use clean CO2 to extract their CBD, and formulate CBD products that both taste and work wonderfully.

We love their juice because it’s the perfect blend of 99% pure CBD isolate, plus the ideal 50/50 ratio of vegetable and propylene glycols. And they only use natural flavourings in their vape products, so you don’t have to worry about potentially harmful additives when you vape their liquids. The only problem we had, as you can see, was choosing our favourite flavour — as all five juice flavours are absolutely superb. The Blue Raspberry Vape Juice is particularly tasty and aromatic. The flavour of this delicious juice hovers somewhere between candy floss and a really good yogurt topping. Frankly, it was almost as enjoyable to stand for a moment in the vape cloud afterward as it was to vape the oil itself.

Use code “OBSERVER” for 25% off.

1a. CBDfx Wild Watermelon CBD Vape Juice

Honestly, you couldn’t go wrong with any of CBDfx’s juice products. The Strawberry Kiwi CBD Vape Juice , Spearmint Gum CBD Vape Juice , and Strawberry Milk CBD Vape Juice are all outstanding. But like the Blue Raspberry CBD Vape Juice mentioned above, the flavour profile of the Wild Watermelon CBD Juice just knocked us out.

And that’s really the best part of having a CBD isolate vape oil: there’s no harsh hemp plant taste lingering in the background. The natural flavouring is able to completely shine — making CBDfx Wild Watermelon Juice an absolute joy for vaping!

Use code “OBSERVER” for 25% off.

2. CBDfx Pineapple Express CBD Terpene Vape Liquid

We’re sticking with CBDfx for one more liquid. Their Pineapple Express CBD Terpene Vape Liquid makes our list because of its unique taste and terpene-enhanced effectiveness. The flavour profile mirrors the classic cannabis strain, named after the legendary Hawaiian storm winds. Made with 99% pure CBD isolate and a 50/50 ratio of vegetable glycol (VG) and propylene glycol (PG), this is a very high-quality vape oil designed for a smooth and balanced experience and great results.

It’s worth mentioning that the three other “classic cannabis” flavours of vape liquid are also top-notch: Platinum Rose CBD Terpene Vape Liquid , OG Kush CBD Terpene Vape Liquid , and Gelato CBD Terpene Vape Liquid .

Use code “OBSERVER” for 25% off.

3. Provacan CBD E-Liquid Unflavoured Vape Oil

If you want to avoid added flavours and scents altogether, we recommend Provacan CBD’s unflavoured vape oil. Like the CBDfx Platinum Rose CBD Liquid, this CBD oil has a boosted terpene profile. Provacan’s vape liquid is made at a smooth 80/20 VG/PG ratio and boasts all the cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids that occur naturally in cannabis hemp.

4. ULU Peppermint E-Liquid

ULU sources their hemp from pesticide-free EU cultivators, and this peppermint CBD formula is as minty and fresh as a candy cane. This smooth-hitting liquid is made from CBD isolate at 5% CBD concentration, and ULU claims their juice delivers approximately 1.6mg of CBD per puff and nearly zero THC.

Why Vape CBD Oil?

Even with all the strict regulations and sideways glances that CBD vaping bumps up against, it’s still an incredibly popular way to incorporate CBD into our lifestyles. Why? Perhaps the primary reason is that vaping CBD is the fastest way to reap its benefits.

When you vape liquid CBD (vape juice), the CBD enters your bloodstream very quickly via your lungs. This means you don’t have to wait for the CBD to work its way through your digestive system and liver (as with a CBD edible). Depending on your body mass, metabolism and other bioavailability factors, vaped CBD can take effect within 2–5 minutes and last for 1–2 hours.

By comparison, a CBD tincture that you hold under your tongue will be absorbed by the sublingual membrane and take effect in roughly 15 minutes and last 4–6 hours.

CBD edibles take longer to kick in because, as mentioned, they must be digested and metabolised before they enter the bloodstream. That means CBD edibles (like CBD gummies) can take up to 45 minutes to take effect. The wait balances out with the length of time the CBD effects last, which falls in the 6–8 hour window.

So, even though the effects of vaped CBD don’t last as long as other methods of CBD delivery, they take effect far faster, providing near-immediate access to the soothing benefits CBD provides.

Beginning in 2021, a big breakthrough came in the UK when all CBD brands had to apply for novel food authorisation , meaning products are required to undergo an independent safety assessment. And this, as we’ll explore later in this article, is vital to ensuring your CBD vaping experience is as safe as possible.

How to Shop for CBD Vape Oil

Now that you’ve seen our picks, let’s talk a little about the criteria we used in selecting our vape liquid faves. With the info below, you can shop for CBD vape products with confidence.

CBD vape products are available pretty much everywhere now, from a high street store to petrol stations. How do you know what to look for? Here are our pro tips for selecting a safe and effective CBD vape oil.

Hemp vs. Marijuana: What’s the Difference?

It all begins with the plant. Tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, is the psychoactive compound found in the cannabis plant that causes a high, and it’s the key to understanding what separates a legal CBD product from a regulated marijuana product. Legally speaking, there are two forms of cannabis plant — cannabis hemp (a.k.a. industrial hemp), and cannabis marijuana.

Cannabis marijuana contains a large amount of THC and causes a high.

Cannabis hemp is used for CBD products. Hemp contains only a tiny, non-intoxicating trace amount of THC (less than 0.3%). That’s the plant used for the CBD vape oils we’ve discussed today.

CBD, THC, and Other Cannabinoids

CBD and THC are both chemical compounds known as cannabinoids . But, they’re not the only ones … not by far. Cannabis actually contains over a hundred cannabinoids, including CBG, CBC, and many others. Each of these compounds has a therapeutic application, and they all work well independently and in tandem with one another.

Full Spectrum CBD, Broad Spectrum CBD, and CBD Isolate

The CBD from cannabis hemp is extracted into three primary forms: full spectrum CBD , broad spectrum CBD, and CBD isolate.

CBD Isolate is, perhaps, the most popular form of CBD used in e-liquid CBD vape products. It is 99% pure CBD with all other cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other compounds removed. This won’t induce the Entourage Effect — a synergistic effect in which all the different compounds work together to modify one another’s effects while also enhancing the overall experience. However, it does deliver the most straightforward form of CBD available. This is a preference for those who want to avoid all traces of THC. CBD isolate also allows the added flavours to shine, without the hemp taste that is unappealing to some. We do recommend that you make sure whatever flavours are used in your vape CBD oil are natural. Safety first!

Full spectrum CBD contains all of the cannabinoids that naturally occur in cannabis, including CBD and trace amounts of THC, as well as CBG, CBN, CBC, terpenes, and flavonoids. Many people prefer full spectrum CBD for its efficacy in creating the Entourage Effect. It’s important to note that pure full spectrum CBD contains more than the 0.2% trace amounts of CBD legally allowed in the U.K. For this reason, if you see a vape liquid in the UK labeled as “full spectrum CBD,” you should understand that it is either: 1) not actually full spectrum CBD, or 2) an illegal CBD product.

Broad spectrum CBD takes full spectrum CBD oil and filters out those remaining amounts of THC. The resultant oil still contains other cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids, and still creates the Entourage Effect to a slightly lesser amount.

Pesticide-Free Plants

When shopping for a CBD vape liquid, the first thing to look for is how the hemp plant it comes from was grown. Cannabis is known as a phytoremediator — that means it cleans the soil it grows in of toxins or chemicals. Where do all these nasty bits go? Into the plant, of course. That includes pesticides, heavy metals, and other chemicals. Your CBD vaping liquid should come from organically grown, pesticide-free cannabis hemp. Otherwise, you’re going to vape straight into your lungs potentially dangerous chemicals, along with your CBD.

Clean Extraction

Cheap CBD brands often use unsafe methods for extracting CBD from the plant. These methods of extracting CBD can include dangerous chemicals, like acetone and butane. This can lead to products containing dangerous additives and chemicals. CO2 extraction (used by CBDfx and others) is considered by the CBD industry to be the cleanest (and most efficient) method of extraction.

Thinning Agents

To work well as a vaping product, extracted CBD oil is typically mixed with a thinning agent. This makes for a smoother, more enjoyable vaping experience. However, certain agents can release dangerous chemicals when heated for vapourisation. For instance, the agent polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), often used in cheaper products, has been shown to release formaldehyde and acetaldehyde — both of which are carcinogens. The highest quality products will typically be made with a combination of vegetable and propylene glycols, usually in ratios ranging from 50/50 to 80/20.

Lab Reports

The most surefire way to know exactly what is in your CBD vape oil is through a report provided by an independent third-party lab. This will tell you the exact percentages of CBD and other cannabinoids in your vaping product, as well as any other chemicals that may be present.

Terpenes and Flavonoids

Cannabinoids like CBD, THC, and CBG are abundant in hemp, but they’re not the only impressive ingredients to be found. Terpenes and flavonoids are not exclusive to cannabis, but they occur in the plant in high amounts and they’re incredibly beneficial.

Terpenes give plants their scent. They’re particularly abundant in plants like cannabis, tea, herbs, and citrus fruits — really pungent plants. In addition to giving plants their unique smell, they possess a host of beneficial properties, from fighting inflammation to fighting anxiety.

You’re probably expecting us to say that flavonoids give plants their flavour, but they actually give plants their colour. They’re also phytonutrients, and can help our bodies fight off illness, soothe inflammation, and boost our overall health and wellness.

Additional Ingredients in Your Vaping Product

Some CBD vape products are formulated for a specific use, like helping with sleep or muscle recovery, or enhancing wellness with vitamins and minerals. This is more often found in edibles, tinctures, and topicals, but it’s important to note even here in our CBD vape oil information. While we believe CBD is an incredibly effective wellness product, natural supplements can help it work more effectively. Lavender and chamomile are popular healthy ingredients for sleep gummies, while superfoods , apple cider vinegar , and multivitamins are incredibly valuable for combining your CBD experience with important supplements and nutrients.

Vape Without the Cloud of Mystery

Now that you not only have a few handy CBD vape product recommendations, but also some solid guidance on how to find the best possible CBD vape oil, we hope you can shop with confidence and enjoy vaping CBD oil without the mystery and misinformation that surrounds not only vaping, but CBD in general.

You can rely on the vaping products we’ve recommended to deliver the kind of soothing, chill CBD experience you seek without the harsh chemicals and fillers you don’t. Pick up one today, and see for yourself!

Evaluation of Two Commercially Available Cannabidiol Formulations for Use in Electronic Cigarettes

Since 24 states and the District of Columbia have legalized marijuana in some form, suppliers of legal marijuana have developed Cannabis sativa products for use in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Personal battery powered vaporizers, or e-cigarettes, were developed to deliver a nicotine vapor such that smokers could simulate smoking tobacco without the inherent pathology of inhaled tobacco smoke. The liquid formulations used in these devices are comprised of an active ingredient such as nicotine mixed with vegetable glycerin (VG) and/or propylene glycol (PG) and flavorings. A significant active ingredient of C. sativa, cannabidiol (CBD), has been purported to have anti-convulsant, anti-nociceptive, and anti-psychotic properties. These properties have potential medical therapies such as intervention of addictive behaviors, treatments for epilepsy, management of pain for cancer patients, and treatments for schizophrenia. However, CBD extracted from C. sativa remains a DEA Schedule I drug since it has not been approved by the FDA for medical purposes. Two commercially available e-cigarette liquid formulations reported to contain 3.3 mg/mL of CBD as the active ingredient were evaluated. These products are not regulated by the FDA in manufacturing or in labeling of the products and were found to contain 6.5 and 7.6 mg/mL of CBD in VG and PG with a variety of flavoring agents. Presently, while labeled as to content, the quality control of manufacturers and the relative safety of these products is uncertain.

Introduction

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were developed as an alternative method for nicotine delivery. Their utility and popularity have transformed them into a general drug-delivery device. They are inexpensive, easy to use, and have some public perception as a healthy alternative. They work by either drawing negative pressure through the mouthpiece or depressing a button to activate a battery that heats a coil, containing a wick saturated with a formulation known as the e-liquid. The e-liquids are made of some ratio of propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG) and/or a pharmaceutical and/or herbal remedy plus, potentially, a flavoring agent. When the e-cigarette is activated, the e-liquid is vaporized, followed by rapid condensation into an aerosol that the user inhales (Breland et al., 2016; Peace et al., 2016a).

On May 5, 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced the extension of their authority to regulate all tobacco products, including e-cigarettes (U.S. Food and Drug Administration [FDA], 2016). A significant reason to do so was to address the quality assurance of e-cigarette products, from the devices to the nicotine-based e-liquids contained within. The e-liquid formulations have been found to vary significantly from the labeled content around the world (Etter et al., 2013; Goniewicz et al., 2013; Kavvalakis et al., 2015; Pagano et al., 2015; Peace et al., 2016a). Since the legalization of marijuana in some form in 24 states and the U.S. District of Columbia, e-liquids containing cannabinoids have emerged in the market place. As with nicotine e-liquid concentrations, the measured concentration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in a commercially available product was found to contain significantly different THC concentration than was labeled (Peace et al., 2016b).

Cannabidiol (CBD) has been purported to have anti-convulsant, anti-nociceptive, and anti-psychotic properties (Brenneisen, 2007; Bhattacharyya et al., 2010). These properties have potential medical therapies such as intervention of addictive behaviors, treatments for epilepsy, management of pain for cancer patients, and treatments for schizophrenia (Johnson et al., 2010; Fischer et al., 2015; Friedman and Devinsky, 2015; Manseau and Goff, 2015). According to the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), CBD is a Schedule I substance as defined by the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Recently, the DEA made it easier for scientists conducting FDA-approved studies to acquire CBD (United States Drug Enforcement Administration [DEA], 2016). Despite the ease of regulation for these research purposes, the CSA still disallows the addition of CBD to products for medicinal benefit since the FDA has not approved it for medical intervention. In 2015 and 2016, the FDA issued warning letters to companies marketing an unapproved drug in their products for therapeutic benefit (United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA], 2015a,b). Some companies selling products containing CBD continue to claim medicinal value for their products. However, some post the FDA disclaimer citing that their products are “not intended for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of a disease” according to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and that they do not “distribute any products that are in violation of the U.S. Controlled Substances Act (Cloud 9 Hemp, 2015; Isodiol, 2016).

Aside from volatile organic compounds and other potential degradation products generated by an e-cigarette during aerosolization which may pose health concerns (Flora et al., 2016), condensation aerosols are known to be useful and effective drug delivery systems. If research on CBD demonstrates acceptable therapeutic utility and thereby removed from Schedule I, the inhalation of CBD through an aerosol produced by an e-cigarette may be advantageous over traditional smoking methods and ingestion. THC enriched e-liquid vaporized in an e-cigarette has been demonstrated to be an effective route of administration for cannabinoids (Varlet et al., 2016). Of major import is that these cannabinoid infused e-liquids be subjected to manufacturing standards to ensure safety and quality of product.

Presented is the evaluation of two commercially available e-liquids labeled to contain 3.3 mg/mL CBD in PG and VG with flavorings. The vendor claims that a hemp strain with the highest CBD potency was used in the manufacture of their products (Cloud 9 Hemp, 2015). The products were presumptively evaluated using Direct Analysis in Real Time ion source attached to a time of flight mass spectrometer (DART-MS) for cannabinoids, flavorants, and other possible constituents. Cannabinoids were quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Alcohols were analyzed by headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (HS-GC-FID). The aerosol produced from the e-liquids with an e-cigarette was analyzed by solid phase microextraction gas chromatograph (SPME-GC/MS).

Materials

Two e-liquids, Cloud 9 Hemp Easy Rider and Yellow Brick Road purported to be infused with CBD, were submitted to the lab for analysis. These products contained no information as to lot number or date of production (Figure ​ Figure1 1 ). All tubing, glassware, and fritted gas dispersion tubes were purchased from Colonial Scientific (Richmond, VA, USA). HPLC-grade methanol used for all dilutions, stock and working solutions was purchased from Pharmco-Aaper (Brookfield, CT, USA). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) with an average molecular mass of 600 Da was used for DART-MS calibration and obtained from ULTRA Inc (North Kingstown, RI, USA). United States Pharmacopiea (USP)-grade PG and VG were obtained from Wizard Labs (Altamonte Springs, FL, USA). Nitrogen and helium gases were acquired from Praxair and Airgas (Richmond, VA, USA). Certified ACS Ammonium acetate, formic acid, HPLC-grade methanol and de-ionized (DI) water, optima grade acetone, ethanol, methanol, n-propanol, and isopropanol were purchased from Fisher Scientific (Hanover Park, IL, USA). Medical-grade nitrogen and helium were purchased from National Welders Supply Company (Richmond, VA, USA). CBD primary reference standard was purchased from Cerilliant (Round Rock, TX, USA). The e-cigarette was a KangerTech Aerotank clearomizer (v2) attached to an eGo-V v2 variable voltage battery, purchased from 101vape.com (Carlsbad, CA, USA). The single coil was wrapped in non-contact configuration with 34 gauge Nichrome wire to 1.8 Ω and a 2 mm diameter silica string was used as a wick. The flow meter was purchased from Cole Palmer (Vernon Hills, IL, USA). Seven micrometers polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fibers were purchased from Supelco (Bellefonte, PA, USA).

(A) Easy Rider and Yellow Brick Road CBD e-liquids with (B) the FDA statement regarding the uses of the e-liquid, and (C) the listed ingredients of the e-liquids.