Cannabis Compounds May Help Reduce Lung Inflammation in COVID-19
Hannah Brown is an Israel-based reporter who covers medicine, public health, special needs issue, and entertainment.
Marley Hall is a writer and fact checker who is certified in clinical and translational research. Her work has been published in medical journals in the field of surgery, and she has received numerous awards for publication in education.
Eddy Belausov, Volcani Institute
- New research shows that certain cannabis compounds may decrease inflamed lung cells.
- This research could have implications in the treatment of coronavirus patients because lung inflammation is one of the most debilitating and deadly complications in the later stage of the disease.
- Innovative methods have been developed to test the efficacy of the compounds.
- Clinical trials have not yet been conducted and caution is needed going forward, because while some cannabis compounds have been found to decrease lung inflammation, others can increase it.
Cannabis compounds could be helpful in fighting lung cell inflammation in patients with COVID-19, according to a paper published in Scientific Reports in January.
The paper looks at how cannabis could potentially be used to treat the inflammation related to the COVID-19 virus (SARS-CoV-2). The virus stimulates an acute inflammation in the lungs as well as in other body organs, known as a “cytokine storm.”
Cytokine storms take place when the body produces too many immune cells and compounds that activate them, called cytokines. The result can be lung damage, respiratory distress syndrome, organ failure and other severe medical problems. For some COVID-19 patients, the immune system response to COVID-19 is to produce these cytokine storms.
Lung inflammation is one of the leading causes of death from the global pandemic, which has infected more than 100 million people around the world and taken over 2.4 million lives in a little over a year.
Study author Hinanit Koltai, PhD, a researcher at the Agricultural Research Organization (ARO) at the Volcani Center in Israel, tells Verywell her team has identified a CBD rich fraction (FCBD) from the extract of a cannabis strain that seems to be able modify immune system activity in lung cells and macrophage cells, which are responsible for releasing cytokines. In turn, this FCBD can reduce inflammation.
In addition to CBD, cannabis compounds CBG and THCV may have clinical value in reducing cytokine secretion in lung epithelial cells.
“On the one hand, we know that cannabis works for the reduction of pain for different medical conditions—for the alleviation of symptoms of Crohn’s disease and colitis, for example,” Koltai says. Although her team has not yet worked with the COVID-19 virus in their research, they have been able to induce COVID-19-like inflammation into cells, so these results could have implications in treating the disease.
Nanotechnology Delivers Cannabis Compounds to Cells
Study co-author Guy Mechrez, PhD, a chemist at the Institute for Postharvest and Food Sciences at ARO, says that he and his research group, who are working with material science and nanotechnology, saw a unique opportunity to collaborate in an innovative way in the cannabis compound research.
Using nanoparticles, “we were able to create an advanced delivery system that allowed us to deliver cannabis-based active material [into cells]," he tells Verywell. “We worked on the development of particles to allow Hinanit’s group to monitor phagocytosis [intake of particles] by cells.”
Koltai and her team have registered a patent to protect specific cannabis compositions that counteract lung cell inflammation.
The patent is based on the exclusive formulation of active ingredients that have been selectively extracted from cannabis due to their high anti-inflammatory activity. It is important to note, she says, that certain compositions of compounds from the plant have also been found to lead to a significant reduction in the expression of the ACE2 gene, a protein in lung cells that acts as receptor through which the coronavirus enters cells.
But she found that while cannabis can decrease inflammation, it can also have the opposite effect and increase inflammation if the correct compounds and amounts are not used.
“Although more studies are needed of cannabis treatment in COVID-19 patients, there needs to be caution in proposing cannabis treatment for these patients, as is presently being suggested in the media,” she says. "Using the full-spectrum cannabis extract has led to an increase, not a decrease, in the properties of inflammation, which suggests that caution should be exercised in using cannabis for COVID-19 patients, and the active ingredients that reduce inflammation properties should be selected from cannabis."
Koltai said her research group is hoping to move into clinical trials within a year.
"All efforts must be made to fight this new viral disease, and especially the acute inflammation that arises during the disease and may cause fatality," she says.
What This Means For You
It's still too early to know exactly how cannabis compounds would be administered to participants in clinical trials, but researchers are hopeful these compounds may be effective at stopping dangerous inflammation.
The information in this article is current as of the date listed, which means newer information may be available when you read this. For the most recent updates on COVID-19, visit our coronavirus news page.
Lung Cancer Advances: Nasal Swabs To Updates On CBD Use
The early detection of lung cancer provides the best chance of cure and prolonged survival. After decades in which lung cancer had a typically grim prognosis, advances in recent years are enabling patients to survive and live longer with lung cancer.
Among the tests currently being studied to increase the chances of diagnosing early lung cancer are nasal epithelial brushings. This is where a small brush is used to collect cells from your nose. These cells are part of the respiratory tract where lung cancer occurs and can be examined for abnormalities associated with lung cancer. Although in the early stages of testing, this technology could potentially identify patients with lung cancer before symptoms develop, a huge breakthrough in early detection.
Lung Cancer Advances in Liquid Biopsy
One of the newest breakthroughs is called liquid biopsy. Lung cancer cells and cancer-related molecules are actually shed into the bloodstream. By taking a blood sample the doctors can look for these cancer cells and molecules.
Dr. David Carbone discusses the use of CBDs and lung cancer treatment
Previously, to determine the type of lung cancer someone has, we could only go into the lung and take a tissue sample. Now, in some cases, a drop of blood can be collected and analyzed to see if one or more mutations is detected that are responsible for lung cancer. Some of these mutations can be targeted with therapies specifically designed for that specific mutation.
Lung Cancer Advances In Immunotherapy
In patients who present with advanced lung cancers, immunotherapies are now available that can result in long term, lasting responses. These immunotherapies are being used alone and in conjunction with chemotherapies to prolong life.
Biomarker testing is used to identify the unique composition of each tumor. Immunotherapy works by stimulating the native immune system to recognize cancer cells as foreign and killing them. Cancer cells have ways to fool the immune system into thinking that cancer cells are normal cells. Immunotherapies help the immune system identify cancer cells as foreign, so it can then destroy the cancer cells.
Lung Cancer Advances In Targeted Therapy
Researchers have learned that no two tumors are alike, similar to how each snowflake is unique. Some patients have specific tumors that we can now target with specific drugs. Used in lung cancers caused by specific gene mutations, these drugs are called targeted therapies.
Lung Cancer Advances and CBD use
CBD or Cannabidiol is a naturally occurring compound found in the cannabis flower. CBD does not give users a “high” like marijuana does. Some cancer patients use CBD oil to treat symptoms of cancer or side effects of cancer treatments, like nausea after chemotherapy or radiation.
Currently, there are no scientific, peer-reviewed studies showing that CBD has a beneficial effect on the cancer itself. Additionally, there are no scientific, peer-reviewed studies of how CBD might interact with powerful targeted therapies.
Also, the beneficial use of the drug marijuana for cancer patients has no scientific, peer-reviewed studies. Marijuana smoke contains many of the same dangerous toxins found in cigarette smoke, a known risk for lung cancer.
Inform your doctor regarding the use of CBDs, marijuana, or any other alternative treatment in conjunction with regular lung cancer treatment. This is vital information so they are aware of any contraindications or side effects.
Bottom line: there are no studies showing that marijuana and/or CBD use are beneficial treatments for cancer, and their use could possibly be harmful.