cbd oil treatment for alzheimer’s in cats

CBD Oil for Cats With Anxiety: How Can It Help?

Cats also suffer from anxiety, and one of the most common causes of their stress is separation-related anxiety. Similar to dogs, cats also develop a deep attachment to their owners, which results in deep stress when the owner leaves the house or goes on vacation and leaves the cat with their parents.

Cat anxiety may also be caused by other factors such as illnesses and trauma.

While some anxiety is normal, it becomes problematic when your cat develops behavioral problems like persistent aggressive behavior and restlessness.

To address the problem, some cat owners use CBD oil to relieve their pet’s anxiety. CBD oil has many beneficial effects that can help control anxiety symptoms in cats.

The question is, is CBD oil for cat’s anxiety safe? How does it help relieve their stress? More importantly, how do you give CBD oil to a cat’s anxiety for the best results?

Why Do Cats Get Anxiety?

Cats are independent and relatively self-sufficient by nature, but when they bond with their owners, the bond can become pretty deep. Similar to pet dogs, domestic cats also grow anxious when you leave them behind.

Separation anxiety isn’t just the source of their stress though. Their anxiety levels also grow when they’re ill or sick. Stiff, arthritic joints, for example, make them more irritable and lethargic than usual.

Cats also become anxious when there are changes in their life. These could include moving into a new home, dealing with a new pet or a baby, loud noises like fireworks, or simply a lack of socialization.

Adopted cats are more prone to anxiety attacks. The feeling of abandonment, traumatic experiences, and history of neglect and abuse trigger their anxiety, resulting in more behavioral problems.

What are the Symptoms of Cat Anxiety?

Cat anxiety symptoms vary, but some of the common signs include:

  • Destructiveness like scratching and chewing on things
  • Hiding or always trying to escape
  • Trembling
  • Inappropriate defecation and urination
  • Vocalization
  • Attention seeking behaviors
  • Increased salivation
  • Excessive grooming
  • Appetite changes

Comforting or soothing your cat may help relieve some of their anxiety symptoms, but if they worsen, then you might need to bring your cat to the vet.

What are the Common Treatments for Cat’s Anxiety?

If your cat’s anxiety is caused by an illness or disease, then addressing the underlying cause helps reduce anxiety symptoms.

If a medical cause can’t be found, then the vet might recommend medications such as anxiolytics and antidepressants. These drugs work to stabilize imbalanced chemicals or neurotransmitters in the cat’s brain, resulting in a calmer mood.

However, long-term use of these drugs causes side effects such as disorientation, vomiting, irregular heartbeats, incoordination, and increased salivation. High doses, in particular, can worsen anxiety or cause kidney and/or liver disease.

Behavior modification also helps. This teaches your cat coping and stress handling skills through desensitization or counterconditioning.

Do Cats Have an Endocannabinoid System?

All mammals have an endocannabinoid system, and similar to humans, it’s also found all over the animal’s body, especially in the brain and the spinal cord. It also maintains chemical balance within the body.

Their endocannabinoid system also has three components — types 1 and 2 cannabinoid receptors, endogenous cannabinoids, and enzymes.

Type 1 cannabinoid receptor plays key roles in many physiological functions such as appetite, stress, fear, and anxiety, among others. It’s also the receptor that produces THC’s intoxicating effects. Type 2 cannabinoid receptor, on the other hand, plays an active role in regulating the immune response.

These cannabinoid receptors respond to endogenous cannabinoids, which are released by the cells when there’s stress or other noxious stimuli. Their activation results in decreased pain and swelling, improvement in appetite, reduction in stress and anxiety, and control of fear.

Endogenous cannabinoids have a short lifespan though. Enzymes quickly degrade them for reabsorption.

What is CBD Oil?

Cannabidiol or CBD is just one of over 115 cannabinoids produced by cannabis plants. It doesn’t bind well to the type 1 cannabinoid receptor, so it won’t produce intoxicating effects. However, CBD stimulates other biological receptors that control physiological functions. It’s through these receptors that CBD helps relieve many symptoms, including anxiety and stress.

When it comes to the type 2 cannabinoid receptor, CBD can directly activate it to control the abnormal immune response, resulting in decreased inflammation.

CBD oils for cats are usually derived from industrial hemp. Because it’s THC-free or contains no more than 0.3% THC, using CBD oil for a cat’s anxiety won’t cause intoxication.

How Does CBD Oil Benefit Cats with Anxiety?

How exactly does CBD oil help relieve your cat’s anxiety? What are the benefits of CBD?

CBD Calms Them Down

CBD has fear and anxiety-relieving effects in animals.

There’s growing evidence that CBD use in animals eases learned fears which contribute to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and phobia disorders. CBD helps relieve fear and anxiety by disrupting the retrieval of ingrained fear memories. It also helps receptors regulate their response to stress and anxiety.

CBD Eases Pain and Swelling

In addition to its anti-anxiety effects, CBD also helps address several symptoms that may worsen your cat’s anxiety and stress.

Aging cats, for example, also develop osteoarthritis of the joints. Their joint pain, inflammation, and stiffness affect the quality of their life, including sleep, appetite, and mood.

Now, CBD not only decreases osteoarthritic pain but also reduces joint swelling. It stimulates receptors responsible for pain control, and it also works on the type 2 cannabinoid receptor for inflammation control.

Improving these symptoms also helps improve your cat’s quality of life, especially when it comes to their mobility and agility.

CBD Relieves Cat Dementia, Which Worsens Anxiety

It’s also natural for aging cats to develop dementia. The symptoms of cat dementia include:

  • Increased anxiety
  • Vocalization with increased meowing
  • Confusion and disorientation
  • Increased agitation, irritability, aggressiveness, or restlessness
  • Withdrawal and avoiding interaction with you and other pets
  • Forgetting learned behaviors, such as where to defecate and urinate
  • Changes in their sleep-wake pattern
  • Changes in behavior such as excessive licking

These symptoms are not limited to cat dementia though, but they can also be present in many cat health problems. These include diabetes, hyperthyroidism, deafness, or hypertension, etc.

CBD has many therapeutic effects that can reduce cat dementia symptoms. Its anti-inflammatory effects reduce low-grade inflammation in the brain, which worsens cat dementia. It also acts as a natural antioxidant that protects healthy brain cells.

Is CBD Oil Safe for Cats?

Hemp-derived CBD oil is generally safe for our feline friends. It’s also well-tolerated by cats, and many pet owners have noted improvement in their cat’s anxiety symptoms.

However, when choosing CBD oil for cats, make sure it’s sourced from industrial hemp and contains zero to no more than 0.3% THC.

THC can be toxic to cats. It causes neurological symptoms in cats such as alternating states of apathy, agitation, and aggression. THC also caused excessive drooling and salivation.

Other factors to look for in choosing CBD oil for cats’ anxiety include CBD source, the extraction process, and laboratory testing, which we’ll discuss below.

Does CBD Have Any Side Effects??

CBD may cause an upset stomach in some cats. If you notice changes in your cat’s bowel movements, you may want to decrease the CBD oil dose.

CBD may also cause lethargy, lower body temperature, and result in motor incoordination, but this usually occurs when you give cats CBD oil with high THC content.

Is CBD Oil for Cats Legal?

Hemp-derived CBD oil is federally legal. However, no regulations have been set yet on the recommended daily intake, quality, potency, and labeling of pet CBD oils, so there’s the risk of buying contaminated or substandard products that may be harmful to your cat.

For the health and safety of your cat, you need to know the factors to consider when buying pet CBD oil.

What Do You Look for in the CBD Oil for Cat’s Anxiety?

CBD is still an unregulated market, especially for cat use, so you have to rely on several key factors to know you’re getting premium-quality CBD oil for cats.

CBD Source

THC can be toxic to cats, so when choosing CBD oil for cat’s anxiety, make sure its CBD is sourced from organically grown industrial hemp. Check, too, that the product doesn’t contain a THC level of more than 0.3%.

The extraction process also matters, and so far, the supercritical CO2 extraction process remains to be the best. It produces safe and clean CBD since it doesn’t create toxic residues or harmful residual solvents.

Type of CBD Oil

There are three types of CBD oil:

  • Pure CBD oil, which only has CBD in it.
  • Broad-spectrum CBD oil, which has CBD plus other cannabinoids and terpenes.
  • Full-spectrum CBD oil, which has CBD, other cannabinoids, terpenes, and THC.

All formats may relieve your cat’s anxiety, but of the three types, full-spectrum CBD oil offers more powerful therapeutic effects.

Yes, it has some THC in it, but the level is so minute that it won’t trigger psychoactive effects. Instead, THC helps boost the therapeutic effects of the other cannabinoids and terpenes.

Laboratory Test Result or Certificate of Analysis

The CBD market offers many different brands of pet CBD oils. They vary not only in types of CBD oils but also in their potencies.

Choosing one may be confusing, but if you’re after quality CBD oils, then look for laboratory test results or certificates of analysis.

Trustworthy pet CBD producers always have their product samples tested by certified laboratory testing facilities. These look for pathogenic microorganisms which compromise the product’s quality. The tests also check for toxic residues such as harmful pesticides, heavy metals, and solvents.

Last but not least, these tests also make sure that the products contain their stated potency by checking their cannabinoid profile and concentration.

If a pet CBD producer can’t show you their product’s COA, then don’t buy their products. They might be cutting corners somewhere and producing substandard pet CBD oils.

Product Reviews

Just because CBD oil has all the qualities you’re looking for doesn’t mean it’s perfect for your cat.

Make sure you’re getting the right one by reading product reviews. Customer feedback tells you how happy (or not!) pet owners are with the product.

If the pet CBD oil received many negative reviews, stay away from it.

What’s the Best CBD Oil Dosage for Cat’s Anxiety?

The general rule for getting the best CBD oil dosage for cats is to give:

  • Low dose for mild symptoms: 1 mg of CBD for every 10 pounds of their body weight
  • Medium dose for moderate symptoms: 3 mg of CBD for every 10 pounds of their body weight
  • High dose for severe symptoms: 5 mg of CBD for every 10 pounds of their body weight

Let’s say you bought a 30 mL bottle containing a total of 150 mg CBD. To get how much CBD is in one full dropper (which has about 20 drops), simply divide 150 by 30. This gives you 5 mg of CBD per one full dropper or 0.25 mg of CBD per drop.

Now, let’s say your cat weighs around 10 pounds, then your pet will need:

  • 1 mg or 4 drops for mild symptoms
  • 3 mg or 12 drops for moderate symptoms
  • 5 mg or 20 drops (one full dropper) for severe symptoms.

How Do You Administer CBD Oil to Your Cat?

You can squeeze the CBD oil directly into your cat’s mouth, or you can add it to your pet’s favorite food.

You’ll start noticing the CBD effects anywhere between 30 minutes to an hour.

Start Low, Go Slow

To avoid side effects, you may want to start your cat on a lower dose.

For example, instead of giving him four drops, you can give him two drops and have him stay on that dose for about three days. If there are no improvements, then increase the dosage. If your cat developed side effects, then decrease the dosage.

You can give CBD oil to your cat every eight hours or as needed, depending on the severity of your pet’s symptoms or reactions to CBD.

It’s going to be a trial-and-error approach, so be consistent and monitor your cat’s responses to CBD.

Through this method, you can easily control the dose until you find the best dose that works for your cat’s anxiety.

Final Thoughts — Can You Give CBD Oil for Cat’s Anxiety?

CBD is a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid that can help relieve your cat’s anxiety. It has therapeutic properties that help calm your pet down and relieve pain, swelling, stress, and other symptoms of extreme anxiety.

We may lack studies focusing on CBD and cats, but initial studies show very promising results.

Have you tried CBD oil for your cat’s anxiety? How was the experience? Comment your story below. We’d love to share it with our readers!

References Used in the Article:

  1. de Souza Machado, D., Oliveira, P., Machado, J. C., Ceballos, M. C., & Sant’Anna, A. C. (2020). Identification of separation-related problems in domestic cats: A questionnaire survey. PloS one, 15(4), e0230999.
  2. Silver R. J. (2019). The Endocannabinoid System of Animals. Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 9(9), 686. [2]
  3. Lee, J., Bertoglio, L. J., Guimarães, F. S., & Stevenson, C. W. (2017). Cannabidiol regulation of emotion and emotional memory processing: relevance for treating anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders. British journal of pharmacology, 174(19), 3242–3256. [3]
  4. Deabold, K. A., Schwark, W. S., Wolf, L., & Wakshlag, J. J. (2019). Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Assessment with Use of CBD-Rich Hemp Nutraceutical in Healthy Dogs and Cats. Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 9(10), 832. [4]
  5. Zadik-Weiss, L., Ritter, S., Hermush, V. et al. Feline cognitive dysfunction as a model for Alzheimer’s disease in the research of CBD as a potential treatment—a narrative review. J Cannabis Res 2, 43 (2020).
  6. Deabold, K. A., Schwark, W. S., Wolf, L., & Wakshlag, J. J. (2019). Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Assessment with Use of CBD-Rich Hemp Nutraceutical in Healthy Dogs and Cats. Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 9(10), 832.
  7. Janeczek, A., Zawadzki, M., Szpot, P., & Niedzwiedz, A. (2018). Marijuana intoxication in a cat. Acta veterinaria Scandinavica, 60(1), 44. [7]
  8. Kulpa, J. E., Paulionis, L. J., Eglit, G. M., & Vaughn, D. M. (2021). Safety and tolerability of escalating cannabinoid doses in healthy cats. Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 1098612X211004215. Advance online publication. [8]
Nina Julia

Nina created CFAH.org following the birth of her second child. She was a science and math teacher for 6 years prior to becoming a parent — teaching in schools in White Plains, New York and later in Paterson, New Jersey.

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CBD Oil for Cats: The Top 3 CBD Brands You Can Trust

Got a cat that is skittish or in need of “chilling out”? Does your cat suffer from chronic discomfort, nervousness, or stiff joints? Senior cats especially may have trouble going up and down the stairs or getting around.

Thankfully, there is a natural and safe way to help our feline friends coap, and the answer is CBD. This article rounds up and displays the best CBD oil for cats, making it easy to choose the right brand for your cat.

Let’s jump in and learn about CBD’s benefits and how you can help your cat feel better today.

Top 3 CBD Oil for Cats:

    – Best Overall & Highest Quality– Best Value– Most Potent & Affordable

How We Came Up with This List of CBD Oil for Cats?

This list was created based on the following criteria:

Personal Thought

Would we feel comfortable giving this to our own cats? Does the formula look “questionable” or otherwise give us a bad feeling? How transparent is the company selling CBD oil? Essentially, we examined each product and read it over carefully, keeping our own beloved felines in mind.

Customer Review

Building off our last statement, we didn’t include a product if we couldn’t see ourselves giving it to our cats. The same goes for other pet owners: we made sure reviews were good for each product before featuring it.

Quality of Formula

The hemp plant is a naturally occurring gift of Mother Nature. It should be kept that way when sold to you. We only included formulas that were organic and natural in their approach to manufacturing. Potency matters, too: every formula featured here has a link where you can view third-party test results dealing with potency.

Value for Money

The oils we feature here are definitely great quality and some may seem a bit costly. With these oils costing almost $25-$40 for a small bottle, we know you demand the best. That being said, the pricing is actually quite affordable when broken down: For example, it costs just 17 cents per mg of premium CBD for HolistaPet, the best bargain of all three brands featured here.

And now, let’s dive right into the main attraction – the best CBD oil for cats, all in one handy list.

Best CBD Oil for Cats

1. HolistaPet – Best Overall & Highest Quality

Holistapet’s CBD oil is fantastic because it can be used on cats, dogs and other animals. Perfect for those who have two or more pets! It is crafted with pure CO2 extracted Full Spectrum CBD oil, along with hemp seed oil. The end result is a potent and powerful concentration, which is easily applied and gets you fast results.

The tincture can be dropped into the mouth of the pet. For the pickier eaters, you can apply the food to their snack or food. It is fast absorbing, so the results are quick.

What Other Pet Owners Said?

Here are two reviews from other cat owners who tried Holistapet’s CBD oil for cats.

“This oil is making my cat’s life better. Her eating habits are back on track, and she seems more awake. My cat is older….and seems like she was slowing down a little, but now it seems the CBD is getting her out of her slump.”-Dina W.

“This is one of my favorite products for my cat. The capsules are good too, but they are easier putting it into her food than breaking open the capsules every time.”-Janet Gleeson

The Benefits

The hemp seed oil in the blend promotes a healthy coat and skin. The immune system is also boosted with this supplement.

Another great benefit is the way in which HolistaPet offers varying sizes.

Available Dosages and What Size Your Pet Needs
  • Pets under 20 LBs- 150 mg
  • Pets 20 to 60 lbs- 300 mg
  • Pets 60 to 100 lbs- 600 mg
  • Pets 100 to 160 lbs- 1200 mg
  • Pets 160 lb and up – 3000 mg

Holistapet = Full Spectrum CBD

In your research about CBD, you may come across a phrase: “Full Spectrum CBD oil.” Why does this matter? What does Full Spectrum CBD mean?

Full-spectrum CBD oil is a term that describes the pure hemp oil that contains all the known cannabinoids. Having all cannabinoids is crucial because they work together, creating a synergistic effect as the cannabinoids interact with the body’s CB1 and CB2 receptors. Essentially, you get potent well-rounded effects.

Full-spectrum CBD oil has more components, which are better than synthetic or isolated cannabinoids. It also contains beneficial vitamins like A, B, C, and E. You can also get calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and magnesium from CBD oil.

Coupon Code

Use code OB15 to get 15% OFF + Free Shipping on your order.

The bottom line? Holistapet is the real deal- they’ve taken great care to craft a quality CBD oil that really works.

Click here to Get the Best Discount on HolistaPet CBD Oil for Cats.

2. Pet Hemp Company – Best Value

If you seek a good value on CBD oil that is full-spectrum and great for cats, dogs, rabbits, and horses, this is the one you should check out. It is an all-natural CBD tincture that can be administered to your pet based upon their weight.

It comes in dropper form, making it a cinch to use. It’s easy to apply, and your cat will love it: all you have to do is drop it into their mouth or apply it to your cat’s food. The formula is quick-acting and will begin to absorb immediately.

What Other Pet Owners Said?

Here are two reviews from other cat owners satisfied with their purchase:

“I’ll say it again- CBD Oil Tinctures [sic] for Dogs and Cats is an excellent product- it works!”- Victoria M

“This company goes above and beyond to make sure you are satisfied. I have a nervous kitty, and I wanted to try [CBD] before anxiety medicine. It’s early, but I’m noticing she seems to be more relaxed. I slip this in her wet food…” – Cassie M

The Benefits

Pet Hemp Company offers full-spectrum CBD oil that can be shipped to you regardless of where you live in the United States. The formula is organic and completely natural.

CBD oil for cats is fantastic in that it works with your feline’s endocannabinoid system to promote good health, regulate bodily functions, and maintain homeostasis. The endocannabinoid system is essential in balancing symptoms of nausea, pain, seizures, anxiety, skin allergies, and many other ailments.

What’s in It?

Inside this formula, you will find hemp seed oil for a healthy coat and skin, plus that immune system boost. All ingredients are GMO-free, organic, and vegan. THC has also been removed, so your pet will not experience a “high.”

The CBD oil is also free of preservatives or additives and is made right in the USA.

Sizing Based on Your Pet

The amount of CBD your pet needs is based on their size, as we mentioned in our last review. Most cats will need the smallest size available, but even if you have a larger cat, larger bottles are available for purchase.

  • Pets under 20 LBs- 150 mg
  • Pets 20 to 60 lbs- 300 mg
  • Pets 60 to 100 lbs- 600 mg
  • Pets 100 to 160 lbs- 1200 mg
  • Pets 160 lb and up – 3000 mg

Click here to Get Pet Hemp Company’s CBD Oil for Cats.

3. NuLeaf Naturals – Potent & Affordable

Nuleaf offers a versatile formula great for pets, including your cat. Their CBD oil is made from Colorado grown hemp, and there are no herbicides, chemical fertilizers, or pesticides used in its production. The ideal dose is 2-3 drops per 20 lbs.

You can simply drip some onto your pet’s food or right into their mouth using the easy dropper.

The reviews are favorable, and pet owners everywhere are saying good things about this tincture.

What Other Pet Owners Said?

Shipment was received ahead of schedule during the pandemic. My cat (who needed knee surgery before age one) was hurting and tense from dealing with his new kitten brother. Your product has taken the edge off, and he’s interacting with the family again. Thank you!!” – Catherine W

This seems to be helping my cat a great deal.”- Elizabeth G

The Benefits

It is a preservative-free, no additive formula that uses CO2 to extract the CBD oil. No chemicals are used at all during the manufacturing process. There are 50 mg of beneficial cannabinoids per mL of oil with no THC included.

The CBD oil by NuLeaf is a whole-plant extract and contains a wide range of natural, synergistic cannabinoids.

CBD oil, in general, has been tested on animals and humans and is used in many applications thanks to its therapeutic properties. It should be noted that the FDA has not officially ruled on CBD, but it is not found to be harmful to humans or animals. Generally it is well tolerated by pets and humans.

Sizing Based on Your Pet

The sizing for this brand is a bit different than the rest. Here’s the recommended dosage for your cat’s weight:

Up to 25 lb- 2 drops

25-50 lb- 4 drops

Over 75 lb- 8 drops

The size of NuLeaf’s bottles are as follows:

15 mL- 725 mg CBD

30 mL- 1450 mg CBD

For a typical cat, a small size bottle will work, but getting a larger bottle is OK too- you will be stocked and prepared.

Click here to Get Nuleaf Naturals CBD Oil for Cats.

Benefits of CBD Oil for Cats

Improves Cattitude

Okay, maybe that was a bad pun, but the attitude of your cat may improve with CBD. A cat that’s in a bad mood could be suffering from low energy, lack of balance in their hormones, or something else that’s making them nervous.

CBD may soothe your cat’s mood by alleviating worries and tension. Remember, CBD promotes homeostasis in the body. It does this by working with the brain receptors that are responsible for hormone creation and mood.

Helps Your Feline’s Appetite

Ever had a cat that wasn’t eating? For an owner, this can signify a problem. Decreased appetite can mean mood issues, dental issues, or other health issues that need addressing.

Much like us humans, when cat’s lack appetite, it probably means they’re not feeling well. If you notice your cat isn’t eating like normal, try to figure out why. Once you understand the reasoning, CBD may be able to help you get your kitty’s appetite back on track.

CBD interacts with cannabinoid receptors located in the stomach and digestive tract. Ingesting some may allow the stomach to relax by easing tension.

Promotes Mobility

As cats age, many become prone to stiff joints which usually decreases mobility. Older cats are at risk of getting arthritis. A large percentage of cats over the age of 6 have arthritis in at least one of their joints. Over 80% of cats older than age 14 suffer from arthritis.

CBD will not cure arthritis because unfortunately there is no cure. However, CBD may ease your cat’s comfort level which may promote mobility and agility.

Is CBD Oil Safe for Cats?

The quick answer to the question is, yes, CBD oil is well tolerated by cats. Many cat parents add it to their cat’s daily regimen. By and large, cats should not have issues when they consume CBD oil.

However, some cat owners have reported their pets developing an upset stomach or becoming very sleepy after consuming large doses of CBD oil.

As a result, it’s important to check with your vet before giving any supplements to your cat and make sure you follow the recommended dosage according to your cat’s weight.

Word of Caution

CBD mostly gets excellent reviews from owners of dogs and cats alike. However, there are no regulations set in place just yet for CBD.

Unfortunately, this leaves pet parents that aren’t “in the know” prone to buying low quality, poorly made, and possibly dangerous products. Studies have shown that some products have almost NO CBD in their product.

Meanwhile, others have been shown to contain more than what is written on the label. Some CBD products can even contain contaminants harmful to your pet.

Staying Safe When Buying

When shopping around for CBD oil, there are a few things you can do to make sure you’re buying a quality product.

First, talk to a vet. You can consult your own vet or even a holistic vet for assistance about CBD. Second, do not use products that aren’t intended for cats. Use only products that are designed for pets and contain just CBD oil and perhaps a carrier like MCT or hempseed oil.

CBD Oil Dosage for Cats

Giving the Appropriate Dose

Appropriate dosages can be made based upon the weight of your cat and severity level. Make sure to give them the right amount. The recommended serving may seem small, but it will be enough for your cat, CBD is concentrated.

Following a correct dosage chart is important for your cat. Giving too much increases the potential of side effects occurring. Some pet parents reported their cat becoming quite sleepy or having an upset stomach, for instance.

For best results, stick with one to two doses per day for your cat, or whatever your vet recommends.

Watch That Potency

High potency products can be advantageous. If you have a cat that is stubborn or is defiant when it comes to taking CBD, you may wish to use this because it is much easier to administer a smaller serving than a larger one.

Empty Stomachs: Are They OK?

Many pet owners wonder if they can give their cat CBD oil on an empty stomach. The answer is yes. CBD oil is quickest to act and strong when administered by itself, so you can give it to your cat 15 minutes before they get ready to eat, or even 15 minutes AFTER they eat.

Some cats will simply not let you get close to them to put the dropper in their mouths, so in that case, it will have to be applied to your cat’s food or treat.

Work Up to the Dosage

Some cats have sensitive stomachs. With sensitive cats you should be cautious when giving the first CBD dosage. You may wish to start with a smaller amount to see how they react and then add a little more each time. One Holistic vet recommends beginning with .2 mg per kg twice a day and then going up to .5 mg per kg twice daily.

How to Administer CBD Oil to Your Cat?

Do you have one of those cats who simply doesn’t really like to be touched up close and personal? Do they tend to get a little skittish when you put your hands near their face? Are they super detectives that can tell if something’s off about their food? If so, fear not.

There are a few different ways you can administer CBD oil to your cat, and in this section, we will discuss four different ways.

Method 1: Add to Food

You can sprinkle the dose from the dropper right into your cat’s food, wet or dry. If you would like to make sure your pet eats it all, place some on a food bowl or disposable paper plate and enclose them in a room alone for a few moments, check on them often to make sure they eat it. Wet food works well, as for some cats, it is a treat compared to the staple dry foods.

Method 2: Fish Oil

A little CBD oil mixed in with some tuna juice is a tasty and sure way to get your cat to take his or her CBD dosage with minimal fuss. Bear in mind this should be given in small amounts, and the tuna juice you serve should be from a can that is packed in water and contains no artificial flavors or ingredients.

Method 3: Add to Empty Bowl

Your cat’s food bowl contains lots of scents that remind your pet of mealtime and feeling good. Placing the CBD oil into the bowl all by itself can work for some cats. They may go to lick the oil up without question because it is surrounded by smells that remind them of dinner time.

Method 4: Dropper

Hold the dropper with your dominant hand- make sure it’s full of the CBD. Allow the cat to lick the dropper’s tip, as you depress the squeezable part slowly. It is best to serve it at room temperature.

Conclusion

No matter what your cat is going through, chances are CBD can help bring them some relief. Get some CBD today and help your cat feel his or her best again. The great thing about CBD is how versatile it is. Any of these great formulas will be helpful to your pet, although HolistaPet is the #1 overall pick. Add in the fact that it is easy to administer, and you have an easy way to help your cat naturally.

Feline cognitive dysfunction as a model for Alzheimer’s disease in the research of CBD as a potential treatment—a narrative review

With the improvement in modern medicine, the world’s human and feline (Felis catus, the domestic cat) population is aging. As the population grows older, there is an increase of age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease in humans and feline cognitive dysfunction in felines, which shares many similarities with Alzheimer’s disease. They both result in cognitive decline and lack effective treatments. In light of their pathological similarities, both occur at old age, and as domestic cats share the human environment and risk factors (cats are considered an indicator to the effect of environmental contaminants on humans as they share exposures and diseases), cats have the potential to be a spontaneous model for Alzheimer’s disease. Classic animal models in many cases fail to predict the results in humans, and a natural model can lead to better prediction of results, thus being both time and cost-effective. The feline disease can be researched in trials that could be simultaneously clinical trials for cats and preclinical trials for humans, also referred to as reverse translational medicine. As both maladies lack effective medical intervention, new potential treatments are merited. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a promising agent that may improve the life of these patients, as it was shown to potentially treat several of the pathologies found in both conditions. yet there is a need for further research in order to establish the benefits and safety of CBD to both human and feline patients.

Background

According to global estimates in 2019, there were over 50 million people suffering from dementia, and by 2050 that number is expected to increase to 152 million (Alzheimer’s Disease International 2020). Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in humans. The disease causes a gradual cognitive decline appearing at early stages as mild short-term memory loss and is easily compensated. However, the more advanced stages affect everyday life and require support in basic everyday functions (Alzheimer’s Association 2019). The owned cat population is also aging thanks to improved nutrition and medical veterinary care. The aging cat population displays behavioral changes which can be attributed to cognitive dysfunction (Karagiannis and Mills 2014). Feline cognitive dysfunction (FCD) is a disorder in cats which causes a decline in the aging cat’s cognitive abilities, without any known underlying medical reason (Karagiannis and Mills 2014; Gunn-Moore et al. 2015). FCD causes behavioral changes, of which the most common are disorientation, change in social interactions with humans or other pets, changes in sleep wake patterns, house soiling, and excessive vocalization, especially at night (Landsberg et al. 2012; Gunn-Moore et al. 2007). Many cats over the age of 11 present some signs of this disorder, while most are symptomatic from 16 and over. Since these behavioral disorders are difficult for owners to live with and compromise the cat’s quality of life, they are often a cause of euthanasia (Karagiannis and Mills 2014). The diagnosis of this syndrome, in living patients, is based solely on exclusion of other medical or behavioral issues, for example, hyperthyroidism, systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), deafness, osteoarthritis (or other causes of chronic pain), and brain tumors (Landsberg et al. 2012), and is complicated as these symptoms are frequently attributed to normal aging of the cat (Bellows et al. 2016). Similar changes can be seen in aging humans and dogs (Landsberg et al. 2012).

The available treatments for humans can only treat the disease’s symptoms as there are currently no targeted drugs that stop or reverse disease progression (Salomone et al. 2012). In cats, there are no registered medications to treat FCD and varying success has been observed from off-label options. Additionally, older cats and especially cats suffering from cognitive dysfunction do not tolerate either handling, or medication or hospitalization well (due to the stress involved). Exploring treatments that can be administered in their food would be beneficial.

Several animal models have shown cannabidiol (CBD) has potential to treat and reverse the changes seen in the brain in AD, although further research to support this is necessary (Watt and Karl 2017).

Alzheimer’s disease and feline cognitive dysfunction severely impair the patient’s health and quality of life and impose a significant burden on their caretakers. As the affected population is expected to grow, there is an urgent need to find treatments that can stop and reverse the deterioration of both human patients and the animal population suffering from similar conditions.

Pathological changes in Alzheimer’s disease and in feline cognitive dysfunction

The accumulation of extracellular plaques is a pathognomonic pathological finding in AD. These are misfolded β-amyloid (Aβ) proteins and tau tangles which are the result of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. Additional findings present in the AD brain are oxidative stress, microglial activation, neuronal loss, and chronic inflammation in the brain which is linked to the neurodegeneration present in AD (Morales et al. 2014; Sarlus and Heneka 2017). Treating the inflammation had beneficial effects in animal models (Lim et al. 2000). In cats, common pathologies found in the brains of patients diagnosed with cognitive dysfunction include decreased cerebral blood flow, free radical damage, and neuronal loss. Additionally, aging domestic cats may spontaneously develop both β-amyloid and tau pathologies similar but not identical to those seen in human AD (Fiock et al. 2020; Chambers et al. 2015). Several studies found β-amyloid aggregates in the aging feline brain (Gunn-Moore et al. 2007; Gołaszewska et al. 2019; Gunn-Moore et al. 2006), although the aggregates present in human and feline patients are different (Gunn-Moore 2011). Other studies found that cats display tau aggregates in their brain with a similar spread pattern as found in human AD patients (Fiock et al. 2020; Gunn-Moore 2011; Poncelet et al. 2019; Youssef et al. 2016) and with shared characteristics (Head et al. 2005). The chronic brain damage leads to a disease similar to the human Alzheimer’s disease (Gunn-Moore et al. 2015; Gunn-Moore 2011). While cats frequently develop spontaneously occurring Tau pathologies, many other animal species, including dogs, rarely express these pathologies (Chambers et al. 2015). Additionally, cats that show signs of behavioral dysfunction tend to also have Aβ plaques (Cummings et al. 1996).

Animal models for Alzheimer’s disease: laboratory animals versus pets with naturally occurring disease

A cross species approach to disease research can advance the understanding of AD and FCD and benefit patients of all species (Devinsky et al. 2018). There is an abundance of published research concerning AD based on laboratory animals, such as transgenic mice (Rosenmann et al. 2008). Although, when the potential treatments are tested in the clinical trial phases, as required by good clinical practice (GCP) guidelines in humans, the results are not as promising and are sometimes hazardous (Götz and Ittner 2008). Laboratory animal models, such as transgenic mice, frequently fail to predict the outcome of the tested potential treatments in humans (Polson and Fuji 2012). Many drugs that seemed promising in animal models did not succeed in clinical trials (Watt and Karl 2017). In fact, it has been concluded that the available animal models do not reflect the human AD fully or accurately (Birch et al. 2014). Examples in AD research include anti-inflammatory drugs that have beneficial effects in animal models and not in human clinical trials (Grammas 2011). Additionally, anti-Aβ vaccination that was found to prevent the accumulation of amyloid deposits in transgenic mice caused severe neurological complications in some of the human patients who received it (Foster et al. 2009).

There are many possible reasons for the failure to translate results from animal models to humans. The animal experiments were carried out with laboratory animals, mostly transgenic that may manifest other deficits. Relating to limited construct, content, ecological, and face validity, animal models are held in a closed regulated laboratory environment and are not exposed to similar environmental contaminants as human patients, which is of high significance in a disease that is also influenced by environmental factors (Cannon and Greenamyre 2011). Therefore, laboratory animal models cannot accurately model natural occurring diseases in a natural home environment. None of the available animal models can represent AD completely since none of them is able to replicate all the features of the human disease; moreover, very few models have both amyloid plaques and tau tangles (Drummond and Wisniewski 2017). Transgenic animal models do not express all the factors present in the human disease, including pathological changes and disease progression; they also do not reflect the etiology of the human disease which is multifactorial and includes genetic and environmental risk factors (Franco and Cedazo-Minguez 2014). Transgenic animal models usually model only a single pathological feature and lack factors that mimic the environmental factors together with the cognitive deficits and with the pathological features. The ideal model should reflect the entire etiology as well as the disease progression (Franco and Cedazo-Minguez 2014).

Moreover, transgenic animal models usually include genetically modified young animals, thereby ignoring an imperative factor in AD which is the aging factor. Domestic cats with naturally occurring disease are also aging as the symptoms are present in cats older than 11 years old and more commonly over 16. Additionally, the transgenic models for AD are based on the familial forms of AD which account only for a small percentage of the AD patients (Epis et al. 2010).

A better model for human disease can be found in owned pets with naturally occurring disease which share the human environment (Ritter et al. 2020). Pets are considered sentinels and bioindicators for environmental contaminants effects on humans due to their shared habitat, simultaneous exposure, and similar disease spectrum (Pastorinho 2020; Beck et al. in press). According to the One Health Initiative, there is a strong link between the health of humans, domestic animals, and the environment. Humans and domestic animals share the same environment (including environmental contaminant), common stressors, and many genetic traits (Christopher 2015). One Health promotes human and animal health through integrative study across all animal species (Gibbs 2014). Since cats suffering from FCD are exposed to the same environment as their owners, the disease mechanism is naturally occurring and at an old age, they make a good model. These studies can prove beneficial to human and veterinary patients (Schneider et al. 2018). The brain lesions have common pathological characteristics in humans and cats, and it has been suggested that cats are a natural model of AD; they demonstrate lesions with morphological and biochemical spontaneous changes that are comparable to the human AD lesions and they do so in a shorter lifespan (Head et al. 2005).

It is worth mentioning that dogs are also potentially natural models for AD in humans as many old dogs also suffer from similar cognitive dysfunction (Prpar Mihevc and Majdič 2019).

Clinical feline trials can be preclinical trials for humans, and medication can be simultaneously developed in a time and cost-effective process. These are known today as reverse translational medicine (Schneider et al. 2018). Additionally, they have the potential to promote animal welfare by avoiding unnecessary use of laboratory animals. The feline disease shares many similarities with AD and although the diseases are not identical we suggest that the similarities AD and FCD share warrant exploring the feline disease as a model to the human disease.

Cats and dogs share pathological changes with the human AD and share the human environment which makes them both good candidate models for naturally occurring AD (Takeuchi et al. 2008). While dogs share many similarities with the human AD, cats are one of the only species which displays naturally occurring tau pathologies (Chambers et al. 2015). It was shown that aging cats share three important similarities with human AD; they have spontaneous development of Aβ dispositions, and they have taupathies and neuronal loss which shares distribution and characteristics with AD (Klug et al. 2020). Moreover, it has been shown that there is a correlation between the neuronal loss and cognitive dysfunction in aging cats (Takeuchi et al. 2008). These facts make cats, at the very least a complementary model to dogs in researching naturally occurring AD.

CBD as potential treatment for Alzheimer’s disease

Among the various functions of cannabidiol are anti-inflammatory properties, demonstrated in vitro and in vivo (in rats) (Cassano et al. 2020; Esposito et al. 2011) and antioxidant properties (Esposito et al. 2011; Pellati et al. 2018) in vitro (Hartsel et al. 2019; Kim et al. 2019). Additionally, CBD was found to inhibit the hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins in vitro (Esposito et al. 2006), which, as mentioned, is present in AD human patients and in some FCD patients. CBD has also been shown to increase the cerebral blood flow in vivo (in mouse models after stroke) (Sultan et al. 2017), attenuate the neurotoxicity of the β-amyloid protein accumulation in vitro and in vivo (in mice), modulate microglial cell function (Martín-Moreno et al. 2011), and reverse cognitive deficits in transgenic animal models (in mice) (Cheng et al. 2014). Thus, CBD has the potential to counter many of the pathological processes in AD (Vallée et al. 2017). There is a need for more research regarding the benefits, risks, and doses for CBD treatment in human patients and especially in elderly human patients (Beedham et al. 2020). The safety of the treatment needs to be evaluated for chronic use (Iffland and Grotenhermen 2017), and potential drug interactions should be evaluated as many elderly patients need to be treated for concurrent conditions (Alsherbiny and Li 2018). Additionally, there is a need to research the usage of CBD to treat FCD patients. Combining the research could benefit feline and human patients and save resources such as time and funds. Clinical evidence in treating dementia or AD with CBD is scarce, we conducted an electronic search in “PubMed” and “Google Scholar” for published articles, in English, published in the years 2005 to September 2020, using the key words “Dementia + Cannabidiol + clinical trials”, “Alzheimer’s + Cannabidiol + clinical trials”, “Dementia + Cannabidiol”, and “Alzheimer’s + Cannabidiol”, and their references and citations. We did not find articles regarding clinical trials in treatment of AD or dementia with CBD. Additionally, a few recent comprehensive reviews that addressed the treatment of AD and dementia with cannabinoids did not review clinical trials with treatment of dementia or AD with CBD (Beedham et al. 2020; Inglet et al. 2020; Cooray et al. 2020). A published case communication demonstrated treatment of an 81-year-old man that suffered from dementia after several cardiovascular events and presented with drowsiness, difficulty keeping his eyes open, inability to maintain eye contact for more than a few seconds, inability to speak, difficulties to communicate, and severe spasticity. He was treated with CBD, starting with 3 daily drops of CBD oil and after approximately 7 days the dose was increased to 4 daily drops of CBD oil. A few days after commencing treatment, his alertness and responsiveness improved and he was able to say a few words. A month after beginning the treatment, he remained more alert and responsive, continued to say a few words, and regained his ability to make eye contact for more than a few seconds, and his spasticity decreased. No side effects were reported (Hermush and Ore 2019).

CBD and feline patients

There is a shortage of literature regarding the usage of CBD in domestic cats and the pharmacokinetics and safety must be established. A comprehensive review of the existing literature on veterinary cannabinoid medicine does not mention feline research in the field (Hartsel et al. 2019). One research tested the pharmacokinetics and safety of a single daily dose of CBD in a small group of cats for 84 days and found that it was absorbed after oral administration and that the safety was satisfactory, although monitoring of liver enzymes is necessary (Deabold et al. 2019). Research with larger numbers of cats is necessary to establish the safety and effectiveness of the treatment. Additionally, a double blind study treating domestic feline cognitive dysfunction patients in significant numbers is necessary to determine the usefulness of this treatment for feline patients and its potential use for human patients.

Conclusions

Classic animal models fail to predict the outcome of new treatments more than they succeed. This causes inefficient use of resources and compromises animal welfare without promoting human or animal health. We suggest, in accord with the One Health Initiative, that a better model for human disease can be found in domestic pets, with naturally occurring diseases who share the human environment so the disease mechanisms and features have a higher chance of simulating the human equivalent. Moreover, we suggest that these trials should be conducted as clinical veterinary trials to develop treatment for the parallel conditions in domestic pets, thus enhancing animal welfare, promoting better veterinary care, and saving resources by simultaneously developing treatments for humans and pets. We find feline cognitive dysfunction a promising model for human Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, we suggest that conducting a clinical trial in aging domestic cats, for researching the benefits of CBD for both conditions, can promote the treatment of these two difficult conditions in humans and pets.