hempworx cbd oil for parkinson’s disease

Hempworx Cbd Oil For Cushings Disease In Dogs Cbd Medical Term | The Abbey Group

Weyrother, who was in full control of Cbd Oil Amazon cannabis extract the proposed battle, by hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs his eagerness and briskness presented a marked contrast to the dissatisfied and drowsy , who reluctantly played the part of chairman and president does cbd oil desensitize pain of the council of war.And he where can i get cbd oil for weight lose acted accordingly. I can t stand this any more, said hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs What Does Cbd Do hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs Ily n, noticing that did not relish Zdrzhinski s conversation.Yes, yes, he muttered, it will be difficult, I fear, difficult to raise happens to everybody Yes, who has not done it And with a furtive glance at his son s face, the count went out of the room Nicholas had been prepared for resistance, but had not cbd oil in new york state at all expected this.And what do his father and sister matter to where do i get cannabis oil cbd max dose me I love him alone, him, him, with is it safe to use cbd oil with chf that face and those hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs Liv Labs Cbd Oil Reviews eyes, with his smile, manly cbd oil benzo withdrawal can i use cbd tincture oil on my face and yet childlike No, I had better not think of him not think of how long does it take for cbd oil to lower blood pressure him but forget side effects of cbd oil in humans him, quite forget him for the present.And you, Michael Nikan rovich he said, addressing Uncle.Yes, really They went into the little room where Bor s slept.Yet strange to say Bor s presence medterra cbd tincture bipolar and marijuana in his wife s drawing What Does Cbd Do hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs room and he was almost always there had how to use cbd disposable vape pen canine cancer and the effects cbd oil has on a hemangiosarcoma a hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs Liv Labs Cbd Oil Reviews physical effect upon hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs Liv Labs Cbd Oil Reviews Pierre it constricted his limbs and destroyed the unconsciousness and freedom of Cannabis Extract Oil hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs his movements.Another borzoi, a hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs Liv Labs Cbd Oil Reviews dog, catching do i still take sinemet and cbd oil for parkinsons disease pure cbd vapors review sight of his master hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs from the garden path, arched his back and, rushing headlong hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs toward the porch with lifted tail, began rubbing himself against his legs.

Well, thank hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs you does cbd test positive on a drug test hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs for it. Do you think I am not grateful And high cbg hemp strains Anatole sighed and embraced.You could at least take back your words. What If you want me to do as you wish, eh cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs Cbd Oil Amazon cannabis extract I take them back, I take them back said Pierre, and I ask you to forgive me.So I ask you to put the money on your cards, replied.All were silent. The old prince looked Cannabis Extract Oil hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs at Rostopch n with a smile and wagged his Cbd Oil Amazon cannabis extract how much 250mg cbd oil to vape head approvingly.The wolf crouched, gnashed her hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs teeth, and again rose hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs and hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs bounded forward, followed at hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs the cannabis extract Big Sale distance of a couple of feet by all the borzois, who did not get any closer to her.Bor s thanked him and went to the reception room, how much cbd oil is ok to take daily where he found some ten officers and generals.On this occasion, he was only more vividly conscious of the fact that if his What Does Cbd Do hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs affairs had not been in disorder, no better wife hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs for Nicholas than Erectile Dysfunction could have been wished for, and that no one but calm cbd himself with his M tenka and his uncomfortable habits was to hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs blame for the hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs condition of the family finances.

Were you kept under lock and key hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs Cannabis Extract Oil hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs Who hindered his coming to the house Why carry you off as if canna pet cbd oil you were some gypsy singing girl Well, if he had carried you do you add cbd oil to a carrier oil off do you think they wouldn t how many drops for cbd oil deep sleep so i add to a have found him Your father, or brother, or your betrothed And he s a scoundrel, a wretch that s a fact He is better than any of you cbd tincture for sleep exclaimed Erectile Dysfunction getting up.His face grew more and more animated. Only when a man was killed or wounded did he Cbd Oil Amazon cannabis extract did lady get arrested at disneyworld for cbd oil frown and hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs turn away from the sight, shouting angrily at the men who, as cbd tea near me cannabis extract Big Sale is always the case, hesitated about hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs Liv Labs Cbd Oil Reviews lifting the injured or dead.And despite his self confidence and grumpy German sarcasm he was pitiable, with his hair smoothly brushed on the temples and sticking up in tufts behind.Moreover, Prince Andrew was expected in Moscow, where old Prince was where can i buy cbd oil in oshkosh wisconsin spending hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs the winter, and Erectile Dysfunction felt hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs sure he had already arrived.Ah, Countess, he hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs Liv Labs Cbd Oil Reviews cbd from hemp oil said at last, that how many days does it take to cbd oil to get in system charlottes web cbd oil compared to garden of life cbd oil s a European talent, cbd for anxiety she has nothing netflix documentary about cbd oil to learn cbd protein bar what softness, tenderness, and strength Ah, how afraid I What Does Cbd Do hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs am for cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs her, how afraid I am hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs Liv Labs Cbd Oil Reviews said the countess, not realizing to whom she was speaking.This quivering of his leg hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs was a thing Napoleon was traveling with cbd oil conscious of.followed them. In front of him can i mix cetaliprom with cbd oil walked s groom leading horses in horsecloths.

This return to the subject of Natalie caused Prince Andrew to knit his brows with discomfort he was about highest quality cbd oil to rise, The Abbey Group hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs but V ra continued hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs Liv Labs Cbd Oil Reviews with a cannabis extract Big Sale still more subtle smile I think no one has hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs been cannabis extract Big Sale more courted than she, she went on, but till quite lately she What Does Cbd Do hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs never cared seriously for anyone.Well, Nast sya Iv novna whispered Cannabis Extract Oil hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs the count, winking at him.Leading from the study was a passage in which a partition with ragged curtains could be seen.What s the matter with you Are you ill Go the quivering voice green roads world cbd oil repeated.The seventh hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs party consisted of the hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs sort of people who are hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs always to be found, especially around young sovereigns, and of whom there were particularly many cannabis extract Big Sale round Alexander generals and mayo clinic cbd oil dosage imperial aides hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs de camp passionately devoted hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs to the Emperor, not merely as a monarch but as a man, Cannabis Extract Oil hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs adoring him sincerely and disinterestedly, as had done in is it legal to sell cbd oil in south dakota 1805, and The Abbey Group hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs who saw in him not only all the virtues but all better care drops cbd oil drops human capabilities as well.After some others had What Does Cbd Do hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs been shown in Cbd Oil Amazon cannabis extract and out of the minister s room by the adjutant on duty, an officer who struck Prince Andrew by his humiliated and frightened air cbd vape oil online was admitted at that terrible door.With a pair of felt boots on his thin bony legs, and cannabis extract keeping on cbd oil for wounds a worn, nankeen covered, sheepskin coat, the traveler sat down on the sofa, leaned back his Cannabis Extract Oil hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs big head with its broad temples and close cropped hair, and looked at Bez khov.

When Napoleon, having cbd oil vs cream hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs finished where can you saftly buy cbd oil cannabis extract Big Sale speaking, looked inquiringly at the Russian envoy, Balash v hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs began a speech he had prepared long before Sire The Emperor, my master what is cannabis tincture used for but the sight of the Emperor s eyes whats the difference between cbd oil and cbd cream bent on him confused him.But neither they nor a single commanding officer were there, only disorganized crowds of troops of various kinds.It is fate. Clearly it is fate that hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs everything led up to this Already then, directly I saw him I felt What Does Cbd Do hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs something peculiar.Only hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs when will all that cannabinoid cbd be I am afraid never make cbd oil with coconut oil It would hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs be too good said Erectile Dysfunction, rising and going to hemp benefits the looking glasses.He was placed on , the gun from Cannabis Extract Oil hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs which they had how many mg cbd removed the dead officer.The novelty of Truth endowed her with special strength, but now charlottes web cbd oil mint chocolate 11 mg we need much more powerful 500mg of cbd methods.Allow stores in springfield mo selling cbd oil me, Miss reputable cbd oil I can t do it like that, said the Cannabis Extract Oil hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs maid who was holding Erectile Dysfunction s hair.

Dear count, you cbd oil made from hemp flowers rather than hemp seeds must hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs let me hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs look after your daughters Though I am not Cbd Oil Amazon cannabis extract giant eagle pharmacy cbd oil price in pittsburgh staying here long real cbd oil 100mg can you vape this time nor are you I hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs will try to amuse them.Your honor, there he is cried one hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs of the hussars behind him.The chief steward, who hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs considered the young count s attempts almost insane unprofitable to himself, to the count, and to the serfs made some concessions.Balash v knew how to The Abbey Group hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs reply to each of Napoleon s remarks, and would have done so he continually made the What Does Cbd Do hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs gesture of a man wishing to Cbd Oil Amazon cannabis extract The Abbey Group hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs say something, but Napoleon always interrupted him.He expected the wolf to come his way any hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs moment. He made thousands of What Does Cbd Do hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs different conjectures as to where and from what side the beast would come and What Does Cbd Do hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs how he would set upon it.On their familiar faces he read agitation and hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs alarm.Gone cbd oil how to make rye whiskey to bed asked hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs the hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs prince. Cbd Oil Amazon cannabis extract T khon, like all good valets, instinctively knew the direction little girl whose parents fought to use cbd oil of his master s thoughts.

M rya Dm trievna glanced round at Erectile Dysfunction and seated herself on the sofa beside Erectile Dysfunction.It no thc cbd oil s nothing, replied Prince Andrew. He hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs should i take cbd oil every day or as needed arthritis pain had just remembered cannabis extract Big Sale his hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs recent Cannabis Extract Oil hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs encounter with the doctor s wife and the convoy officer.P trusha has hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs come with papers from your father, whispered the maid.The music sounded louder and cannabis oil benefits through the door rows of brightly lit recent news on cbd oil and epilepsy boxes in which ladies sat Cbd Oil Amazon cannabis extract What Does Cbd Do hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs with bare arms and shoulders, and noisy stalls brilliant with uniforms, glittered before their eyes.I have been an atheist, answered Pierre. cbd oil weed You are seeking for hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs truth in order to The Abbey Group hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs follow its laws in your hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs life, therefore you seek wisdom and virtue.Isn t she hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs exquisite she said to Pierre, pointing hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs to the stately beauty as she glided away.Returning from his hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs journey through South Russia hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs in the happiest state of mind, Pierre carried out an intention he had long had of visiting his friend hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs hempworx cbd oil cushings disease in dogs , whom he had not seen for two years.

Berg held a smoking pipe between his knees. Bor s, in the accurate way characteristic of him, hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs hemp dabs was building a little pyramid of cannabis extract Big Sale chessmen with his delicate white fingers advanced cbd oil with terpenes review while awaiting Berg s move, hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs and cannabis extract Big Sale watched his opponent s face, evidently thinking about the game as he always hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs thought only of whatever he was engaged on.Anger hemp cigar hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs Liv Labs Cbd Oil Reviews again showed in Erectile Dysfunction s face. And I ll go to my ruin, I will, as soon as possible It s not your business It won t be you, but I, cannabis extract Big Sale cbd ointment for back pain What Does Cbd Do hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs who ll suffer.The countess was still unwell and unable to travel but it hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs Liv Labs Cbd Oil Reviews was impossible to wait for her recovery.Fine orders was being repeated on different sides. And the feeling of energy with hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs Liv Labs Cbd Oil Reviews which the troops had started began to turn into vexation and anger at the stupid arrangements and at the Germans.We are enjoying ourselves Vas li Dm trich is staying Cbd Oil Amazon cannabis extract a day longer for my sake Did can thc free cbd oil show up on a drug test you know No, Papa is not back yet, said Erectile Dysfunction.Whom have hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease you come from Who are you I come from Major Den sov, answered Rost what does full spectrum hemp oil mean Are you an officer Lieutenant Count Rost What audacity Cbd Oil Amazon cannabis extract Hand it in Cannabis Extract Oil hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs through your commander.After his illness hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs he looked rather thinner that dors hempworx pet cbd oil contain thc day than on the cbd oil canton ohio field of Olm tz where had seen how many drops of cbd oil to use daily for arthritus relief him The Abbey Group hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs for the first time abroad, but there Cbd Oil Amazon cannabis extract was still the same bewitching combination how do i know if cbd is in oil of majesty and mildness in his fine gray eyes, and on his delicate lips the same can you fail a urine test from cbd oil capacity for varying expression and the same prevalent appearance of hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs goodhearted innocent youth.

From the first glance Princess cannabis extract Big Sale Mary did not like Erectile Dysfunction.What is the matter, Mary Nothing only I feel sad sad about Andrew, she said, wiping away her tears on her sister in hemp bomb cbd oil law s knee.What do you think who sells hemp bombs near me of Natalie Could she be constant in her attachments Could she, like other women V ra meant herself , love a man once for all and hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs remain true to him forever That is what I hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs consider true love.She What Does Cbd Do hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs What Does Cbd Do hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs is enchanting, but is nanoemulsified a good way to take cbd oil what makes her so hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs Cbd Oil Benefits For Skin I know. That is hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs all one can say what effects does cbd have on the body about her.Then the voice said something more, Demy n replied, and the cannabis extract Big Sale steps in the felt boots approached the unseen bend of the staircase more rapidly.who had just celebrated his promotion to a cornetcy and hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs bought Den sov s horse, Bedouin, was in debt all round, to his comrades and the hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs Liv Labs Cbd Oil Reviews sutlers.Why can t hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs Liv Labs Cbd Oil Reviews you understand I love him hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs Then I won t let it come to that I shall tell cried Erectile Dysfunction, bursting into tears.

Else how could all this have happened thought she. If, after that, I could return his smile when saying good by, if I was able to let it come to that, it means that I loved him from the first.The others all followed, dispirited and shamefaced, and only much later were they able to regain their former affectation of indifference.H l ne spoke of him as mon page and treated him like a child.He was always conscious of some aspect of that skein, as with a buzzing in his head after dinner or supper he chatted or listened to conversation or read.

Quick Effect hempworx cbd oil for cushings disease in dogs Cbd Oil Patches, cannabis extract

CBD Oil: Everything You Need to Know

Is it just me, or did CBD oil (cannabidiol oil) totally explode over the last year? I see new articles practically every day about its miraculous benefits, including claims that it may even provide hope for patients who have exhausted their conventional treatment options. People are using it for everything from anxiety and seizure disorders to psoriasis and pain management. I’ve gotta say—I’m just blown away by the exciting possibilities that CBD oil has to offer.

Since this is such a hot topic (and I have a feeling that you’re just as curious about it as I am!), I asked our Crazy Sexy Nutrition Director, Jen Reilly, to dig into it and give us the 411. Keep in mind that research is currently underway and findings are still emerging. But you know us—we’ll be keeping our eyes peeled for new info and sharing updates with you as soon as we get ‘em.

The good news is, there’s already a ton of fascinating and helpful information out there about CBD oil—and that’s exactly what we’re about to dive into.

Take it away, Jen!

CBD Oil: Everything You Need to Know

by Crazy Sexy Nutrition Director Jen Reilly, RD

Thanks, Kris! Nothing gets me more excited than the possibility of simple supplemental solutions to common health issues, so I’ve been closely following the CBD oil news for a while now. Among my nutrition patients, I’ve seen CBD oil help with anxiety and psoriasis when nothing else seemed to work. One patient has even been able to reduce her anxiety meds by half! The internet is also full of anecdotal evidence pointing to the potential benefits of CBD oil—including everything from pain management and nausea relief during chemotherapy to freedom from colitis and other inflammatory digestive disorders.

As Kris pointed out, human scientific research is still in the very early phases. This is especially relevant when it comes to determining a safe and effective dosage of CBD oil, as well as understanding the possible side effects. I’m not saying that you shouldn’t get excited about its potential benefits (Kris and I sure are!), but I urge you to take caution and work with an integrative doc if you’re thinking about taking it—just like you should with any medication or supplement!

But first, what is CBD oil?

CBD oil is a naturally occurring chemical compound typically processed from the hemp plant (though it’s also found in marijuana—more on that later!). It can be taken orally—under the tongue, in food and drinks, or inhaled with a vape pen. It can also be applied topically as a salve or cream.

So, what’s the difference between CBD and THC?

Hemp and marijuana both come from the Cannabis sativa plant family, and the key difference between the two is their THC content. THC, like CBD, is a naturally occurring chemical compound found in Cannabis sativa plants. Marijuana has a high percentage of THC, which is psychoactive and well-known for the “high” it produces. Hemp, on the other hand, has a low THC percentage (0.3% or less). So, CBD extracted from hemp (and with no added components) has no psychoactive effect.

Both medical marijuana and CBD oil may be prescribed to treat certain health conditions. But, medical marijuana is still marijuana—it has a high THC content and is only legal in certain states. CBD oil, however, should be legal to consume and distribute in the United States as long as it comes from hemp. That said, many laws are still new or unclear, so research your state’s regulations to be sure. Here’s a list of states that have specific laws regarding CBD oil.

Ok, but what is CBD oil used for?

Time to dive into the good stuff!

Now, to effectively explain the potential benefits of CBD oil, I’ve gotta introduce you to the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS regulates and balances many functions of the body. But, when it gets out of whack because of stress, poor diet or too many free radicals (think: exposure to toxins), you may experience some nasty symptoms—I’m talkin’ increased anxiety, an upset digestive system, inflammation, a weakened immune system and increased sensitivity to pain. Ouch!

Under normal circumstances, we produce our own endocannabinoids that bind to our ECS receptors and keep our bodies in balance. But, when stress or inflammation ensue, endocannabinoid production decreases. And that’s where the star of our story comes in to save the day! CBD oil can stimulate the ECS receptors, which supplements a naturally occurring system and helps your body find proper balance again. Pretty cool, huh?

As I explained above, research about the benefits of CBD oil is ongoing, but anecdotal reports (both from individuals experimenting on their own and doctors who prescribe CBD oil) show lots of promise.

Here are some of the benefits and uses we’re aware of so far:


An estimated 30% of people with epilepsy are resistant to conventional pharmaceutical treatments. But, the anticonvulsant properties of CBD oil provide new hope for relief. The cannabinoids act on receptors in the brain to alter brain chemistry and reduce seizure activity. Plus, CBD oil also happens to be free of the serious negative effects that come along with many traditional anticonvulsant medications.

There are plenty of anecdotal accounts of people using CBD oil to treat epilepsy, but one in particular is particularly incredible—and touching. Charlotte Figi was having 50 seizures a day, some lasting for 2-4 hours. She couldn’t walk or swallow, and she wasn’t responding to conventional medications. At just age 5, she was suffering and her body continues to decline. But, when her mom started giving her CBD oil (with very low THC) under her tongue, the seizures stopped almost immediately. Now they only occur 2-3 times a month, mostly in her sleep. By age 6, Charlotte was walking again, riding her bicycle, feeding herself and talking. She continues to thrive and be an example of the power of CBD oil. You can read more about her touching story here.

Intestinal Inflammation

Inflammatory digestive issues are no fun—and many conventional “treatments” do nothing more than put a temporary band-aid on the symptoms (rather than address the root of the issue). CBD oil, however, may be able to prevent inflammation in the first place! By activating certain ECS receptors connected to intestinal health, it appears to increase movement in the digestive tract and balance stomach acid in a way that can help normalize digestion, prevent constipation and reduce nausea and vomiting. Larger human studies are in the works to test effectiveness and dosage so docs can better prescribe CBD oil for their patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

Anxiety and Depression

While not completely understood yet, CBD oil is thought to stimulate ECS serotonin receptors in a way that can positively increase serotonin levels and improve mental health. Many folks taking it—for anxiety or depression specifically, or relief from something else—report feeling an increased sense of calm, less irritability, renewed interest in favorite activities and an elevated mood. In 2011, one small human study (24 people) showed that people with anxiety who took CBD oil felt less nervous about public speaking.

In addition to its ability to mitigate anxiety and depression, CBD oil can also help reduce delusions and hallucinations associated with schizophrenia. Plus, it has far fewer possible negative side effects than the medications often prescribed for these conditions.

CBD oil may help reduce chronic pain by impacting ECS receptor activity, reducing inflammation and interacting with neurotransmitters. It also appears to block the absorption of anandamide (a pain regulator), thereby reducing pain sensitivity.

As you know, conventional pain medications come with a laundry list of side effects, and some can be addictive. Because CBD oil doesn’t have the same caveats, doctors are feeling more and more comfortable recommending it to patients with chronic pain. For further reading, check out Dr. Eva Shelhub’s article on hemp oil for pain management here.

Chemotherapy Side Effects

While the research is very limited and mostly includes animal** and test-tube studies, there are several accounts of patients using CBD oil to reduce chemotherapy side effects. People have reported relief from nausea, vomiting and even neuropathic pain. There are also accounts of CBD oil boosting appetite and preventing weight loss, as well as promoting emotional well-being.

One area of concern for researchers is that the receptors CBD oil inhibits to prevent nausea and vomiting may be important for other brain functionality. For now, the side effects appear to be minimal, but more sophisticated human research is needed (study). As always, work with your doc—and for further information on how CBD oil can help relieve the side effects of chemotherapy, check out this article.

Acne and Psoriasis

Did you know that there are even ECS receptors in your skin (they’re everywhere!)? Well, it turns out that when CBD oil is applied topically, it stops the quick cell turnover responsible for both acne and psoriatic flare-ups. That combined with CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties make it a promising treatment for both acne and psoriasis. Check in with your doc to determine how much CBD oil and which application method you should use for acne or psoriasis.

There are a lot of exciting uses for CBD oil in the skin care realm. Many companies are starting to use it in their products to combat acne, calm inflammation (think: puffiness, redness, etc.) and more. Stay tuned for an in-depth exploration of this topic by our fabulous Beauty Editor, Danielle Shine!

How much CBD oil should I take?

While many integrative doctors are recommending CBD oil to their patients and seeing results, clear dosage guidelines haven’t been set by the medical community. Dr. Robert Rountree, a CBD oil pioneer and expert, recommends 10 milligrams a day for treating anxiety and pain—but your dosage will vary based on what you’re treating. Your doc can help you determine which dosage and form is best for you.

Where can I buy CBD oil and what kind should I get?

Because of the murky laws around growing Cannabis sativa in several states, some companies are producing CBD oil in a lab so they can make a profit without breaking any laws. Integrative docs discourage using these synthetic preparations because they often contain toxins, come with a list of possible side effects like agitation and rapid heartbeat, and are less potent than the naturally cultivated varieties.

Because the CBD oil industry is unregulated and full of companies trying to get a piece of the pie, it’s important to look for pure, high-quality sources that are pharmacist-formulated, third-party tested and have a trusted purity verification (check the labels for all those buzz words!). Examples of trusted brands include Green Roads, Sisters of the Valley and Charlotte’s Web.

What are the side effects of CBD oil?

There are few known side effects of CBD oil to date. One study** lists tiredness, diarrhea, and changes in weight and appetite as possible side effects, so keep those in mind and adjust dosage with your doc if you’re experiencing any uncomfortable reactions. Also, it’s important to note that certain medications may interact with CBD oil, including heart medications, antibiotics and allergy meds—all the more reason to work with a professional as you move forward!

The CBD oil industry is booming and more research comes out every day. But, what we know now is that this simple, naturally occurring remedy has the potential to help many people find relief from an array of health challenges—and that’s incredibly exciting. I hope to see CBD oil become a mainstream treatment in the near future. Until then, I encourage you to do your research, work with your doctor and check back in on this post for new info!

Choose calm over overwhelm, even when you’re wildly busy. Get your free meditation track:

Wow! Thank you, Jen. That was super helpful and informative.

I’m a firm believer in the power of diet and lifestyle practices to keep us healthy and even manage serious health challenges (in conjunction with conventional treatment). But, sometimes we need a little extra help—and there’s nothing wrong with that. The promise that CBD oil shows to bring relief and answers fills me with so much hope, and I can’t wait to see what it has in store for us.

I hope you’ll bookmark this post so you can refer back to it—we’ll keep it updated as more research emerges!

Your turn: Have you tried CBD oil? If so, we’d love to know about your experience and which brands you’ve tried! Or if you haven’t tried it, are you interested in learning more about it?

Peace and radical remedies,

My brand new Crazy Sexy Reset: 3-Day Plant-Based Cleanse is designed to help you get back on track quickly and address the challenges that often come along with unbalanced eating (I’m talkin’ bloating, fatigue, mental fog—you name it). Click here to get started for just $29 (a $30 savings)!

** Animal Studies : We don’t rely on animal studies at Crazy Sexy Wellness. Because of the profound differences in anatomy, physiology and genetics when comparing animals and humans, these studies are often unreliable and don’t accurately predict the outcomes of human studies. Also, the majority of animal research studies are unethical and inhumane. Animals tend to exhibit a great deal of anxiety and stress during experiments, which can impact outcomes and cause unnecessary harm. For these reasons, we rely solely on human research when reviewing clinical outcomes in scientific literature.

Cannabis and Parkinson’s disease

This is the kind of post that can really get someone in quite a bit of trouble.

Both the legal kind of trouble and the social media type of trouble.

Given the online excitement surrounding a particular video that appeared on the internet last week, however, we thought that it would be useful to have a look at the research that has been done on the medicinal use of Cannabis and Parkinson’s disease.

In addition, we will assess the legal status regarding the medicinal use of Cannabis (in the UK at least).

Cannabis being grown for medicinal use. Source: BusinessWire

This week a video appeared online that caused a bit of interest (and hopefully not too many arrests) in the Parkinson’s community.

Here is the video in question:

The video was posted by Ian Frizell, a 55 year old man with early onset Parkinson’s disease. He has recently had deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery to help control his tremors and he has also posted a video regarding that DBS surgery which people might find useful (Click here to see this).

In the video, Ian turns off his DBS stimulator and his tremors quickly become apparent. He then ‘self medicates’ with cannabis off camera and begins filming again some 20-30 minutes later to show the difference. The change with regards to his tremor are very clear and quite striking.

Here at the SoPD, we find the video very interesting, but we have two immediate questions:

  1. How is this reduction in tremors working?
  2. Would everyone experience the same effect?

We have previously seen many miraculous treatments online (such as coloured glasses controlling dyskinesias video from a few years ago) which have failed when tested under controlled conditions (the coloured glasses did not elicit any effect in the clinical setting – click here to read more). Some of these amazing results can simply be put down to the notorious placebo effect (we have previously discussed this in relation to Parkinson’s disease – click here to read the post), while others may vary on a person to person basis.

Thus, while we applaud Mr Frizell for sharing his finding with the Parkinson’s community, we are weary that the effect may not be applicable to everyone. For this reason, we have made a review of the scientific literature surrounding Cannabis and Parkinson’s disease.

What exactly is Cannabis?

Drawings of the Hemp plant, from Franz Eugen Köhler’s ‘Medizinal-Pflantzen’. Source: Wikipedia

Cannabis (also known as marijuana) is a family of flowering plants that can be found in three types: sativa, indica, and ruderalis. Cannabis is widely used as a recreational drug, behind only alcohol, caffeine and tobacco in its usage. It typically consumed as dried flower buds (marijuana), as a resin (hashish), or as various extracts which are collectively known as hashish oil.

While the three varieties of cannabis (sativa, indica, and ruderalis) may look very similar, pharmacologically they have very different properties. Cannabis sativa is often reported to cause a “spacey” or heady feeling, while Cannabis indica causes more of a “body high”. Cannabis ruderalis, by contrast, is less well used due to its low Tetrahydrocannabinol levels.

What is Tetrahydrocannabinol?

Tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC) is one of the principle psychoactive components in Cannabis. It a chemical that is believed to be a plant defensive mechanism against herbivores. THC is a cannabinoid, a type of chemical that attaches to the cannabinoid receptors in the body, and it is this pathway that many scientists are exploring for future neuroprotective therapies for Parkinson’s disease (For a good review on the potential cannabinoid-based therapies for Parkinson’s disease, click here).

A second type of cannabinoid is Cannabidiol (or CBD). CBD is considered to have a wider scope for potential medical applications. This is largely due to clinical reports suggesting reduced side effects compared to THC, in particular a lack of psychoactivity.

So what research has been done regarding Cannabis and Parkinson’s disease?

In 2004, a group of scientists in Prague (Czech Republic) were curious to determine cannabis use in people with Parkinson’s disease, so they conducted a study and published their results:

Title: Survey on cannabis use in Parkinson’s disease: subjective improvement of motor symptoms.
Authors: Venderová K, Růzicka E, Vorísek V, Visnovský P.
Journal: Mov Disord. 2004 Sep;19(9):1102-6.
PMID: 15372606

The researchers posted out 630 questionnaires to people with Parkinson’s disease in Prague. In total, 339 (53.8%) completed questionnaires were returned to them. Of these, 85 people reported Cannabis use (25.1% of returned questionnaires). They usually consumed it with meals (43.5%), and most of them were taking it once a day (52.9%).

After consuming cannabis, 39 responders (45.9%) described mild or substantial alleviation of their Parkinson’s symptoms in general, 26 (30.6%) improvement of rest tremor, 38 (44.7%) alleviation of rigidity (bradykinesia), 32 (37.7%) alleviation of muscle rigidity, and 12 (14.1%) improvement of L-dopa-induced dyskinesias.

Importantly, half of the people who consumed cannabis experience no effect on their Parkinson’s disease features, and four responders (4.7%) reported that cannabis actually worsened their symptoms. So while this survey suggested some positive effects of cannabis in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, it is apparent that the effect is different between people.

Additional surveys have been conducted around the world, with similar results (Click here to read more on this).

Have there been any clinical trials?

In the 1990s, there was a very small clinical study of cannabis use as a treatment option for Parkinson’s disease, and this study failed to demonstrate any positive outcome. In the study, none of the 5 people with Parkinson’s disease experienced any effect on their Parkinson’s motor features after a week of smoking cannabis (click here for more on this).

This study was followed up by a larger study:

Title: Cannabis for dyskinesia in Parkinson disease: a randomized double-blind crossover study.
Authors: Carroll CB, Bain PG, Teare L, Liu X, Joint C, Wroath C, Parkin SG, Fox P, Wright D, Hobart J, Zajicek JP.
Journal: Neurology. 2004 Oct 12;63(7):1245-50.
PMID: 15477546

In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 19 people with Parkinson’s disease randomly received either oral cannabis extract or a placebo (twice daily) for 4 weeks. They then took no treatment for an intervening 2-week ‘washout’ period, before they were given the opposite treatment for 4 weeks (so if they received the cannabis extract during the first 4 weeks, they would be given the placebo during the second 4 weeks). In all cases, the participants and the researchers were ‘blind’ to (unaware of) which treatment was being given.

The results indicated that cannabis was well tolerated by all of the participants in the study, but that it had no pro- or anti-Parkinsonian actions. The researchers found no evidence for a treatment effect on levodopa-induced dyskinesia.

In addition to this study, there has been a recent double-blind clinical study of cannabidiol (CBD, mentioned above) in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease:

Title: Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: an exploratory double-blind trial.
Authors: Chagas MH, Zuardi AW, Tumas V, Pena-Pereira MA, Sobreira ET, Bergamaschi MM, dos Santos AC, Teixeira AL, Hallak JE, Crippa JA.
Journal: J Psychopharmacol. 2014 Nov;28(11):1088-98.
PMID: 25237116

The Brazilian researchers who conducted the study took 21 people with Parkinson’s disease and assigned them to one of three groups which were treated with placebo, small dose of CBD (75 mg/day) or high dose of CBD (300 mg/day). They found that there was no positive effects by administering CBD to people with Parkinson’s disease, except in their self-reported measures on ‘quality of life’.

So what does all of this mean?

Firstly, let us be clear that we are not trying to discredit Mr Frizell or suggest that what he is experiencing is not a real effect. The video he has uploaded suggests that he is experiencing very positive benefits by consuming cannabis to help treat his tremors.

Having said that, based on the studies we have reviewed above we (here at the SoPD) have to conclude that the clinical evidence supporting the idea of cannabis as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease is inconclusive. There does appear to be some individuals (like Mr Frizell) who may experience some positive outcomes by consuming the drug, but there are also individuals for whom cannabis has no effect.

One of the reasons that cannabis may not be having an effect on everyone with Parkinson’s disease is that many people with Parkinson’s disease actually have a reduction in the cannabis receptors in the brain (click here for more on this). This reduction is believed to be due to the course of the disease. If there are less receptors for cannabis to bind to, there will be less effect of the drug.

Ok, but how might cannabis be having a positive effect on the guy in the video?

Cannabis is known to cause the release of dopamine in the brain – the chemical classically associated with Parkinson’s disease (Click here and here for more on this). Thus the positive effects that Mr Frizell is experiencing may simply be the result of more dopamine in his brain, similar to taking an L-dopa tablet. Whether enough dopamine is being released to explain the full effect is questionable, but this is still one possible explanation.

There could be questions regarding the long term benefits of Mr Frizell’s cannabis use, as long term users of cannabis generally have reduced levels of dopamine being released in the brain (Click here for more on this). Although the drug initially causes higher levels of dopamine to be released, over time (with long term use) the levels of dopamine in the brain gradually reduce.

I live in the UK. Is it legal for me to try using Cannabis for my Parkinson’s disease?

National status on Cannabis possession for medical purposes. Source: Wikipedia

The map above is incorrect, with regards to the UK at least (and may be incorrect for other regions as well).

According to the Home Office, it is illegal for UK residents to possess cannabis in any form (including medicinal).

Cannabis is illegal to possess, grow, distribute or sell in the UK without the appropriate licences. It is a Class B drug, which carries penalties for unlicensed dealing, unlicensed production and unlicensed trafficking of up to 14 years in prison (Source: Wikipedia; and if you don’t trust Wikipedia, here is the official UK Government website).

In 1999, a major House of Lords inquiry made the recommendation that cannabis should be made available with a doctor’s prescription. The government of the U.K., however, has not accepted the recommendations. Cannabis is not recognised as having any therapeutic value under the law in England and Wales.

Having said all of this, there has recently been an all-party group calls for the legalisation regarding cannabis for medicinal uses to be changed (click here for more on this). Whether this will happen is yet to be seen.

So the answer is “No, you are not allowed to use cannabis to treat your Parkinson’s disease”.

(And here is where things get a really grey)

There is a cannabis-based product – Sativex – which can be legally prescribed and supplied under special circumstances. Sativex is a mouth spray developed and manufactured by GW Pharmaceuticals in the UK. It is derived from two strains of cannabis leaf and flower, cultivated for their controlled proportions of the active compounds
THC and CBD.

In 2006, the Home Office licensed Sativex so that:

  • Doctors could privately prescribe it (at their own risk)
  • Pharmacists could possess and dispense it
  • Named patients with a prescription could possess

In June 2010 the Medicines Healthcare Regulatory products Agency (MHRA) authorised Sativex as an extra treatment for patients with spasticity due to Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Importantly, doctors can also prescribe it for other things outside of the authorisation, but (again) this is at their own risk.

EDITORIAL NOTE: Given that possessing cannabis is illegal and that more research into the medicinal benefits of cannabis for Parkinson’s disease is required, we here are the SoPD can not endorse the use of cannabis for treating Parkinson’s disease.

While we are deeply sympathetic to the needs of many individuals within the Parkinson’s community and agree with a reconsideration of the laws surrounding the medicinal use of cannabis, we are also aware of the negative consequences of cannabis use (which can differ from person to person).

If a person with Parkinson’s disease is considering a change in their treatment regime for any reason, we must insist that they first discuss the matter with their trained medical physician before undertaking any changes.

The information provided here is strictly for educational purposes only.

The banner for today’s post was sourced from the IBTimes.

Share this:

Like this:


Published by Simon

I am the Deputy Director of Research at the Cure Parkinson’s Trust. Before that I was working as a Parkinson’s research scientist at the University of Cambridge where I conducted both clinical- and lab-based research on Parkinson’s. I have worked in the Parkinson’s research field for over 15 years – both academically and in biotech ventures. In addition, I am the president of my local Parkinson’s UK support branch in North Hertfordshire. All of my views/opinions expressed here are solely my own, and may not reflect the views of my employer or associated parties. View all posts by Simon

14 thoughts on “ Cannabis and Parkinson’s disease ”

There is vastly more research on cannabis for Parkinson’s than you suggest.

My apologies for the length of this comment but I hope it is helpful.

Cannabinoid–Dopamine Interaction in the Pathophysiology and Treatment of CNS
Disorders (full – 2010)
Enhancement of endocannabinoid signaling by fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition: a
neuroprotective therapeutic modality. (full – 2010)
Loss of cannabinoid CB1 receptor expression in the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced
nigrostriatal terminal lesion model of Parkinson’s disease in the rat. (full – 2010)
Cannabinoids and Dementia: A Review of Clinical and Preclinical Data
(link to PDF – 2010) http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/3/8/2689
The effects of cannabinoid drugs on abnormal involuntary movements in dyskinetic and
non-dyskinetic 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats. (abst – 2010)
In vivo type 1 cannabinoid receptor mapping in the 6-hydroxydopamine lesion rat model
of Parkinson’s disease. (abst – 2010) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20026090
Cannabinoid receptor agonist protects cultured dopaminergic neurons from the death by
the proteasomal dysfunction. (full – 2011)
Is lipid signaling through cannabinoid 2 receptors part of a protective system?
(full – 2011) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3062638/
Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders. (full – 2011)
Symptom-relieving and neuroprotective effects of the phytocannabinoid D(9) -THCV in
animal models of Parkinson’s disease (full – 2011)

Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 Protects Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons against
MPTP Neurotoxicity by Inhibiting Microglial Activation. (full – 2011)
Cannabinoid receptor signalling in neurodegenerative diseases: a potential role for
membrane fluidity disturbance. (full – 2011)
Endocannabinoid hydrolysis generates brain prostaglandins that promote
neuroinflammation (full – 2011)
Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Neuroinflammation
Associated with Parkinson’s Disease (abst – 2011)
Regional changes in type 1 cannabinoid receptor availability in Parkinson’s disease in
vivo (abst – 2011)
Neuropathology of sporadic Parkinson disease before the appearance of parkinsonism:
preclinical Parkinson disease. (abst – 2011)
Homeostatic changes of the endocannabinoid system in Parkinson’s disease.
(abst – 2011)
Increased vulnerability to 6-hydroxydopamine lesion and reduced development of
dyskinesias in mice lacking CB1 cannabinoid receptors (abst – 2011)
The dynamic nature of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) gene transcription
(full – 2012) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02175.x/full
The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabis and Cannabinoids (full – 2012)
Cannabinoid modulation of neuroinflammatory disorders. (full – 2012)
Review article: The endocannabinoid system in normal and pathological brain ageing
(full – 2012)
The cannabinoid agonist WIN55212-2 decreases l-DOPA-induced PKA activation and
dyskinetic behavior in 6-OHDA-treated rats. (full – 2012)
Cannabinoids and value-based decision making: implications for neurodegenerative
disorders. (full – 2012) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3496267/
The decrease of dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor densities in the putamen and nucleus
caudatus goes parallel with maintained levels of CB(1) cannabinoid receptors in
Parkinson’s disease: A preliminary autoradiographic study with the selective dopamine
D(2)/D(3) antagonist [(3)H]raclopride and the novel CB(1) inverse agonist
[(125)I]SD7015. (full – 2012) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4180092/
Targeting the endocannabinoid system with cannabinoid receptor agonists:
pharmacological strategies and therapeutic possibilities (full – 2012)
Δ(9) -THC exerts a direct neuroprotective effect in a human cell culture model of
Parkinson’s disease. (abst – 2012) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22236282
Contribution of genetic variants to pain susceptibility in Parkinson disease.
(abst – 2012) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22473870
Evaluation of the role of striatal cannabinoid CB1 receptors on movement activity of
parkinsonian rats induced by reserpine. (full – 2013)
Striatal Molecular Signature of Subchronic Subthalamic Nucleus High Frequency
Stimulation in Parkinsonian Rat. (full – 2013)
Temporal changes of CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the basal ganglia as a possible
structure-specific plasticity process in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. (full – 2013)
The Influence of Cannabinoids on Generic Traits of Neurodegeneration. (full – 2013)
Cannabidiol attenuates catalepsy induced by distinct pharmacological mechanisms via 5-
HT1A receptors activation in mice. (full – 2013)
A spontaneous deletion of α-Synuclein is associated with an increase in CB1 mRNA
transcript and receptor expression in the hippocampus and amygdala: Effects on alcohol
consumption (full – 2013) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3931467/
Natural Cannabinoids Improve Dopamine Neurotransmission and Tau and Amyloid
Pathology in a Mouse Model of Tauopathy. (link to PDF – 2013)
Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids in Neurodegenerative Disorders: A Selective
Review. (abst – 2013) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23829360
Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol is protective through PPARγ dependent mitochondrial
biogenesis in a cell culture model of Parkinson’s Disease
(abst – 2013) http://jnnp.bmj.com/content/84/11/e2.58.abstract
Oleoylethanolamide reduces L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia via TRPV1 receptor in a
mouse model of Parkinson´s disease. (abst – 2013)
The combination of oral L-DOPA/rimonabant for effective dyskinesia treatment and
cytological preservation in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease and L-DOPA-induced
dyskinesia. (abst – 2013) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24196024
L-DOPA-treatment in primates disrupts the expression of A(2A) adenosine-CB(1)
cannabinoid-D(2) dopamine receptor heteromers in the caudate nucleus.
(abst – 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0028390813005121
The endocannabinoid system: a putative role in neurodegenerative diseases.
(full – 2014) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4070159/
The CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist reduces L-DOPA-induced motor fluctuation and
ERK1/2 phosphorylation in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. (full – 2014)
Endocannabinoid signalling and the deteriorating brain. (full – 2014)
Cannabinoids: New Promising Agents in the Treatment of Neurological Diseases
(full – 2014) http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/19/11/18781/htm
Activation of PPAR gamma receptors reduces levodopa-induced dyskinesias in 6-OHDAlesioned
rats. (full – 2014) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4323744/
Medical Cannabis Research, What the Science Says (article – 2014)
L-DOPA disrupts adenosine A2A-cannabinoid CB1-dopamine D2 receptor heteromer
cross-talk in the striatum of hemiparkinsonian rats: Biochemical and behavioral studies.
(abst – 2014) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014488614000028
Cannabidiol Normalizes Capase 3, Synatophsin, and Mitochondrial Fission Protein
DNM1L Expression Levels in Rats with Brain Iron Overload: Implications for
Neuroprotection (abst – 2014) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23893294
Genome-wide microarray analysis identifies a potential role for striatal retrograde
endocannabinoid signaling in the pathogenesis of experimental l-DOPA-induced
dyskinesia (abst – 2014) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24599755
Cannabis (Medical Marijuana) Treatment for Motor and Non-Motor Symptoms of
Parkinson Disease: An Open-Label Observational Study. (abst – 2014)
Cannabidiol can improve complex sleep-related behaviours associated with rapid eye
movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson’s disease patients: a case series.
(abst – 2014) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24845114
The monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 is neuroprotective and alters glial cell
phenotype in the chronic MPTP mouse model. (abst – 2014)
Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An
exploratory double-blind trial. (abst – 2014)
Identification of CB2 receptors in human nigral neurons that degenerate in Parkinson’s
disease. (abst – 2014)
Self-Reported Efficacy of Cannabis and Other Complementary Medicine Modalities by
Parkinson’s Disease Patients in Colorado (full – 2015)
Promising cannabinoid-based therapies for Parkinson’s disease: motor symptoms to
neuroprotection. (full – 2015)

Coordinated Regulation of Synaptic Plasticity at Striatopallidal and Striatonigral Neurons
Orchestrates Motor Control (full – 2015)
Increasing levels of the endocannabinoid 2-AG is neuroprotective in the 1-methyl-4-
phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson’s disease.
(full – 2015) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014488615300583
The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for movement disorders. (full – 2015)
Endocannabinoid Signaling in Motivation, Reward, and Addiction: Influences on
Mesocorticolimbic Dopamine Function. (full – 2015)
Cannabinoid-dopamine interactions in the physiology and physiopathology of the basal
ganglia. (full – 2015) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.13215/full
Cannabinoids and Tremor Induced by Motor-related Disorders: Friend or Foe?
(full – 2015) http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13311-015-0367-5
Detection of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 within basal ganglia output neurons in
macaques: changes following experimental parkinsonism (link to PDF – 2015)
Potential of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor as a pharmacological target against
inflammation in Parkinson’s disease. (abst – 2015)
The role of cannabinoids and leptin in neurological diseases. (abst – 2015)
Differential upregulation of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor in neurotoxic and
inflammation-driven rat models of Parkinson’s disease. (abst – 2015)
Neuroprotective Effect of JZL184 in MPP+-Treated SH-SY5Y Cells Through CB 2
Receptors. (abst – 2015) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25976369
N-Palmitoylethanolamine and Neuroinflammation: a Novel Therapeutic Strategy of
Resolution. (abst – 2015) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26055231
Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Movement Disorders. (abst – 2015)
Cannabinoids in Neurodegenerative Disorders and Stroke/Brain Trauma: From
Preclinical Models to Clinical Applications. (abst – 2015)
Endocannabinoids and Neurodegenerative Disorders: Parkinson’s Disease, Huntington’s
Chorea, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Others. (abst – 2015)
Dopamine-dependent CB1 receptor dysfunction at corticostriatal synapses in
homozygous PINK1 knockout mice. (abst – 2015)
The neuroprotection of cannabidiol against MPP+-induced toxicity in PC12 cells
involves trkA receptors, upregulation of axonal and synaptic proteins, neuritogenesis, and
might be relevant to Parkinson’s disease (abst – 2015)
THC exerts neuroprotective effect in glutamate affected murine primary mesencephalic
cultures and neuroblastoma N18TG2 cells (abst – 2015)
Modulation of cellular redox homeostasis by the endocannabinoid system.
(full – 2016) http://rsob.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/6/4/150276
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol protects against MPP+ toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells by
restoring proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. (full – 2016)
Targeting the cannabinoid CB2 receptor to attenuate the progression of motor deficits in
LRRK2-transgenic mice. (abst – 2016)
Reversal effect of simvastatin on the decrease in cannabinoid receptor 1 density in 6-
hydroxydopamine lesioned rat brains. (abst – 2016)
Upregulation of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor in environmental and viral inflammationdriven
rat models of Parkinson’s disease. (abst – 2016)
Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition for the symptomatic relief of Parkinsons disease.
(abst – 2016) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27318096
Endocannabionoid System in Neurological Disorders. (abst – 2016)
The bright side of psychoactive substances: cannabinoid-based drugs in motor diseases.
(abst – 2016) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27373318
Co-administration of cannabidiol and capsazepine reduces L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia
in mice: Possible mechanism of action (abst – 2016)
Type-2 cannabinoid receptors in neurodegeneration. (abst – 2016)
Cannabinoid Type 2 (CB2) Receptors Activation Protects against Oxidative Stress and
Neuroinflammation Associated Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in Rotenone Model of
Parkinson’s Disease. (abst – 2016) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27531971
CB2 receptor activation prevents glial-derived neurotoxic mediator production, BBB
leakage and peripheral immune cell infiltration and rescues dopamine neurons in the
MPTP model of Parkinson’s disease. (abst – 2016)

Enhanced levels of endogenous cannabinoids in the globus pallidus are associated with a
reduction in movement in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease (abst – 2000)
Control of the cell survival/death decision by cannabinoids. (abst – 2001)
Experimental parkinsonism alters endocannabinoid degradation: implications for striatal
glutamatergic transmission. (full – 2002) http://www.jneurosci.org/content/22/16/6900.long
US Patent 6630507 – Cannabinoids as antioxidants and neuroprotectants (full – 2003)
(Assignee (owner)- the US GOVERNMENT!)
Future of Cannabis and Cannabinoids in Therapeutics (link to PDF – 2003)
Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in CNS disease. (abst – 2003)
Cannabis trial on Parkinson’s (news – 2003)
Survey on cannabis use in Parkinson’s disease: subjective improvement of motor
symptoms. (abst – 2004)
Marijuana Compounds May Aid Parkinson’s Disease (news – 2004)
Depression in Parkinson’s disease is related to a genetic polymorphism of the
cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) (full – 2005)
Cannabinoids provide neuroprotection against 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity in vivo and in
vitro: relevance to Parkinson’s disease. (abst – 2005)
Cannabinoid control of motor function at the basal ganglia. (abst – 2005)
Cannabinoids In Medicine: A Review Of Their Therapeutic Potential (full – 2006)

Anti-dyskinetic effects of cannabinoids in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease: role of CB1
and TRPV1 receptors (full – 2007) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2128772/?
The endocannabinoid system in targeting inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases
(full – forum repost – 2007)
Clinical research Cannabinoids in health and disease (link to PDF – 2007)
Evaluation of the neuroprotective effect of cannabinoids in a rat model of Parkinson’s
disease: importance of antioxidant and cannabinoid receptor-independent properties.
(abst – 2007) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17196181
Endocannabinoid-mediated rescue of striatal LTD and motor deficits in Parkinson’s
disease models. (abst – 2007) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17287809
Cannabinoids and neuroprotection in motor-related disorders. (abst – 2007)
Comparison Analysis of Gene Expression Patterns between Sporadic Alzheimer’s and
Parkinson’s Disease (abst – 2007) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18198416
Marijuana-Like Chemicals Helps Treat Parkinson’s (news – 2007)
Parkinsons’ Helped By Marijuana-Like Chemicals In Brain (news – 2007)
Enhancing Activity Of Marijuana-Like Chemicals In Brain Helps Treat Parkinson’s
Symptoms In Mice (news – 2007)
The importance of the endocannabinoid-system (news – 2007)
Paraquat induces apoptosis in human lymphocytes: protective and rescue effects of
glucose, cannabinoids and insulin-like growth factor-1. (abst – 2008)
The cannabinoid CP55,940 prolongs survival and improves locomotor activity in
Drosophila melanogaster against paraquat: implications in Parkinson’s disease.
(abst – 2008) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18538428
LSUHSC research reports new method to protect brain cells from diseases like
Alzheimer’s (news – 2008) http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-08/lsuh-lrr082008.php
WIN55,212-2, a Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist, Protects Against Nigrostriatal Cell Loss
in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease (full – 2009)
Cannabidiol: a promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders? (full – 2009)
The endocannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of motor dysfunction.
(full – 2009) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2697699/
Cannabidiol for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease (abst – 2009)
Medical Marijuana and Parkinson’s Disease (news/ad – 2009)

Hi Peter, thanks for the messages (and all of the links!) and yes, we completely agree: there has been mountains of work in this area. There does appear to be major future potential for derivatives of Cannabinoids in neurodegenerative conditions (not just PD).

In our post, however, we were primarily focusing on the clinical side of things. The bulk of the links you have kindly provided deal mostly with preclinical experiments (on cells in culture or animal models of PD). While we certainly hope that novel future therapies will result from those efforts, in the post we were simply providing a short review of what has been tested on subjects in the clinic. And as we say, the published results appear to be mixed with some people having positive benefits while other experience limited effects.

Thanks very much for contributing! Much appreciated.

Yep, there’s a terrible lack of clinical work on all aspects of medicinal cannabis and cannabinoids, mainly because of its schedule 1 status. That is beginning to change and there are clinical trials going on in Israel, Canada and California. Probably the most promising area for PD is cannabidiol (CBD) which is non-psychoactive, completely safe on all available evidence and easily available in the UK.

Hi there, great write up. I do have to correct your information on Sativex which is, in fact, a full plant extract. Extracts from different strains (High THC/Low CBD Eg: Skunk and High CBD/low THC Eg: Charlottes Web are mixed to produce a 1-1 Balanced THC/CBD ratio. The final product contains all cannabinoids and terpenes etc from the whole plant, plus a bit of alcohol to make it a tincture and peppermint for taste! Then they price it so high, our own NHS cant afford it so any patients who have been able to get it, pay about £8000 per year. The vast majority of our patients (at United Patients Alliance) find it is not strong enough to mange pain properly so have replaced it with herbal cannabis, cheaper and more effectively.

Opps. Thanks for pointing out the error Jon. And for highlighting some of the issues faced by affected folks that we didn’t cover in the post. Much appreciated.