purpose of cbd oil for dogs

CBD Oil for Dogs: Common Side Effects

We know you take being a dog parent seriously. As such, you are meticulous when it comes to your dog’s diet, health, and wellness. The more we know about what’s in our dog’s food and in the medications and supplements we give to them, the more we know we can potentially do better than we’ve been doing, to provide healthier, higher quality options that deliver better results.

Since the Farm Bill of 2018 was passed, the production and manufacturing of commercial hemp has been legalized federally, and the availability of hemp products for our pets has increased exponentially. While this is definitely a giant step in the direction of focusing more on traditional, holistic remedies for our dogs’ ailments, it may leave you with questions as to what these options are and whether or not they are actually safe.

We understand. We’re dog parents, too, and as such, we’re committed to creating the safest products with the highest quality ingredients for our dogs. This is why we created a specially formulated CBD tincture designed specifically for your pet.

Our tinctures are filled with CBD oil that is hemp-derived and American grown. We subject our tinctures to the highest standards of third party laboratory testing to ensure they not only contain the quality and concentration of CBD we say they do, but they also don’t contain anything they shouldn’t, like harmful pesticides or chemicals.

If you have questions about CBD oil for your dog, we’re here to help answer your questions so you can make an informed decision if CBD oil is a good option for your dog’s health and wellness routine.

What Exactly is CBD Oil?

There’s a lot of confusion surrounding what CBD oil and what it is not. CBD is the abbreviation for “cannabidiol.” Cannabidiol is one of over 100 compounds found in the hemp variety of the Cannabis sativa plant. These compounds, called cannabinoids, have impactful health benefits for your pet that are best realized when they are extracted from the cannabis plant together.

When all cannabinoids from the plant work together concurrently, your pet receives the maximum benefit the plant has to offer, and that benefit is referred to as the entourage effect.

If you’re wondering if CBD oil can get your dog “high,” rest assured it cannot. This common misconception about CBD oil, that it can somehow make your animal high, is born from confusion between CBD and another popular cannabinoid, tetrahydrocannabinol, or “THC.” This is the cannabinoid responsible for producing the euphoric “high” a user feels when they use marijuana. It’s worth noting that commercially grown hemp (the kind that produces CBD oil) produces a very low amount of THC.

By federal law, commercially manufactured CBD products, including those for your pet, must be made from hemp plants that contain less than 0.3% THC, which is not enough to produce a “high.” It’s important that a CBD product contain this trace amount of THC, however, as there is evidence to support the presence of THC as a necessity to deliver the entourage effect. Full spectrum CBD oil is the only kind of CBD oil that contains this trace THC, so it’s important to use this type of CBD oil when seeking optimal results. A CBD isolate oil cannot produce the entourage effect, and may not be as beneficial for your pet.

How Does it Affect My Dog?

CBD may have an instantaneous effect on some dogs, though it may take several doses or even weeks to notice changes in other dogs.

Once you’ve given your dog CBD oil, you may be able to see results within minutes. Every animal is different, and some dogs are more immediately receptive to the effects of CBD oil than others. Your dog’s response to CBD oil will depend on the concentration and amount of CBD oil you give as well as the dog’s individual physiology.

A typical dose of CBD oil will last for approximately eight to twelve hours. Every dog is different and how your dog responds to CBD oil may not be exactly the same as another dog’s response.

Why Should I Give My Dog CBD?

CBD has a wide range of potential benefits when given to your dog. Here are some of the main reasons people administer CBD to their pets.

  • CBD oil can support joint health.
  • CBD can support normal GI function.
  • CBD can support normal brain function.
  • CBD can promote calmness .

What Are Common Side Effects?

Before starting any new regimen with your pet, you should always consult a veterinary professional . The team at VETCBD is knowledgeable and experienced, but your specific veterinarian knows your animal personally, and should be made aware of any changes in their overall routine.

CBD oil is generally very well tolerated by canines, with very few side effects. When given in low doses, you will likely not notice any adverse side effects with CBD treatment. However, if your dog experiences a side effect from CBD oil treatment, it will likely be among the following:

  • Drowsiness. In a small portion of animals, CBD can cause them to be sleepy.
  • Vomiting and/or diarrhea. This is a rare side effect and may indicate another issue altogether. However, if you suspect your CBD oil treatment is adversely affecting your dog’s GI tract, stop treatment and contact your veterinary professional.

What To Look For in CBD Products for My Dog?

If you’re ready to try CBD oil as a holistic supplement for your dog, there are some things you should know before making a purchase. Not all CBD oils are created equally, and it’s important to know what you’re buying.

For optimal effects, your dog’s CBD oil should be full spectrum so they are able to obtain maximum CBD oil benefit. Our tinctures are full spectrum where the CBD oil is extracted from responsibly grown American hemp and uses organic extra virgin olive oil as the carrier oil.

It’s important to verify the quality, safety and potency of the CBD product you’re purchasing. Third party testing ensures that the CBD products you use for your dog include the exact type and amount of ingredients the manufacturer says they do. We triple-test our products throughout the manufacturing process with independent laboratories for third party testing to ensure we’re achieving the most effective cannabinoid profile for your pet. Additionally, this layer of testing also ensures that our products do not contain any unwanted chemicals, pesticides, or other ingredients that could cause harm to your pets.

Being generally well-tolerated and safe for most dogs, it’s worth giving CBD oil a try to help support your dog’s overall wellness and health. Explore VETCBD Hemp today and see all your options to help your dog thrive.

US Veterinarians’ Knowledge, Experience, and Perception Regarding the Use of Cannabidiol for Canine Medical Conditions

Due to the myriad of laws concerning cannabis, there is little empirical research regarding the veterinary use of cannabidiol (CBD). This study used the Veterinary Information Network (VIN) to gauge US veterinarians’ knowledge level, views and experiences related to the use of cannabinoids in the medical treatment of dogs. Participants (n = 2130) completed an anonymous, online survey. Results were analyzed based on legal status of recreational marijuana in the participants’ state of practice, and year of graduation from veterinary school. Participants felt comfortable in their knowledge of the differences between Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and marijuana, as well as the toxic effects of marijuana in dogs. Most veterinarians (61.5%) felt comfortable discussing the use of CBD with their colleagues, but only 45.5% felt comfortable discussing this topic with clients. No differences were found based on state of practice, but recent graduates were less comfortable discussing the topic. Veterinarians and clients in states with legalized recreational marijuana were more likely to talk about the use of CBD products to treat canine ailments than those in other states. Overall, CBD was most frequently discussed as a potential treatment for pain management, anxiety and seizures. Veterinarians practicing in states with legalized recreational marijuana were more likely to advise their clients and recommend the use of CBD, while there was no difference in the likelihood of prescribing CBD products. Recent veterinary graduates were less likely to recommend or prescribe CBD. The most commonly used CBD formulations were oil/extract and edibles. These were most helpful in providing analgesia for chronic and acute pain, relieving anxiety and decreasing seizure frequency/severity. The most commonly reported side-effect was sedation. Participants felt their state veterinary associations and veterinary boards did not provide sufficient guidance for them to practice within applicable laws. Recent graduates and those practicing in states with legalized recreational marijuana were more likely to agree that research regarding the use of CBD in dogs is needed. These same groups also felt that marijuana and CBD should not remain classified as Schedule I drugs. Most participants agreed that both marijuana and CBD products offer benefits for humans and expressed support for use of CBD products for animals.

Introduction

Cannabis is one of the earliest cultivated crops, grown in Taiwan for fiber starting about 10,000 years ago (1). The Emperor Shen-Nung, a pharmacologist, wrote a book on treatment methods in 2737 BCE that included the medical benefits of cannabis and recommended it for many ailments, including constipation, gout, rheumatism, and absent-mindedness (2). Cannabis plants can be genetically classified as either hemp or marijuana, based on the concentration of (-)-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and other cannabinoids they contain (3). Marijuana typically refers to plants with high concentrations of THC, the psychotropic drug used for medicinal or recreational purposes. In contrast, hemp is typically cultivated for use in personal care products, nutritional supplements, and fabrics. It contains higher amounts of CBD, which does not have psychotropic properties. The rules and regulations for CBD and marijuana are different with each having separate statutory definitions.

Recently, the US senate debated the legalization of industrial hemp, with the introduction of the Hemp Farming Act of 2018, aimed at lifting the ban on hemp as an agricultural commodity. Incorporated into the larger 2018 Farm Bill the hemp farming act was passed. The Hemp Farming Act provides for the removal of industrial hemp from Schedule I of the Controlled Substance Act (CSA). This removal would explicitly legalize the cultivation, processing and sale of all hemp-derived products, including CBD (4). The final stages of this legalization process are yet to develop. In September, 2018 the U.S. Department of Justice and the Drug Enforcement Agency announced that Epidiolex (newly approved CBD containing anti-seizure medication) was placed in Schedule V. The DEA signaled that this approval only applied to Epidiolex and not all CBD products (5).

As such, the legal status of CBD remains confusing. According to the Drug Enforcement Agency, Schedule V drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with lower potential for abuse than Schedule IV and consist of preparations containing limited quantities of certain narcotics. Schedule V drugs are generally used for antidiarrheal, antitussive, and analgesic purposes (6).

The confusion around legal status of cannabis has made it challenging to study its effects, yet the demand for recreational and medical cannabis continues to grow. Sales of legal recreational and medical cannabis in the United States in 2017 resulted in $5.8–$6.6 billion revenue, and by 2022, legal cannabis revenue in the U.S. market is projected to reach $23.4 billion (7).

Against this backdrop, research remains minimal. Those wishing to study the effects of cannabis or cannabinoids must navigate a challenging process that may involve the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Food and Drug Administration, Drug Enforcement Administration, offices or departments in their state’s government, state boards, their home institution, and potential funders (8). There have been a handful of controlled clinical trials conducted with cannabinoids, reporting positive effects on pain, nausea, vomiting, inflammation, cancer, asthma, glaucoma, spinal cord injury, epilepsy, hypertension, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, or loss of appetite (9–11). In late June 2018, the FDA approved Epidiolex, the nation’s first drug derived from marijuana, for the treatment of seizures associated with two rare and severe forms of epilepsy in humans (12).

Research on animals is equally challenging, with few researchers studying cannabis in animal patients without explicit FDA and DEA approval, but in a manner they contend complies with federal and state law. A researcher from Colorado State University recently reported findings from a small pilot study involving 16 dogs. She found that 89 percent of epileptic dogs had fewer seizures when taking the chicken-flavored CBD oil, as compared to about 20 percent that had were on a placebo (13). Another project, conducted at Cornell University, included a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study that appeared to show that dogs treated with CBD oil have a clinically significant reduction in pain and an increase in activity (14). Given its growing popularity, it is important to assess small animal veterinary practitioners’ experiences with CBD products for dogs. This current study was designed to gauge US veterinarians’ knowledge level, views and experiences related to use of cannabinoids in the medical treatment of dogs. This study was not designed to study perceptions, views, or experiences related to the use of marijuana products with high levels of THC in dogs. The authors’ perception is that there is much more interest in the public for using CBD products in dogs, possibly due to concerns over THC toxicity.

Method

An anonymous online survey was created, in collaboration with VIN (Veterinary Information Network–an online veterinary community), to evaluate veterinarians’ views regarding marijuana and CBD/hemp products. The survey was created and tested for usability by researchers at Colorado State University. After the survey was created, one of the authors of this paper (MR) set up online distribution and arranged for a small sample of VIN members to pilot test the survey for appropriate branching and question flow, ambiguity, and potentially missing or inappropriate response options. Their feedback was analyzed, and incorporated into the final version of the survey. A link to the survey was distributed via an email invitation to all VIN members (n

34,000), and access was made available from April 27, 2018- May 16, 2018. A follow-up message was sent 2 weeks after the initial invitation. Only data from respondents who stated they currently treat dogs in clinical practice were included in the study. The study was categorized as exempt by Colorado State University’s Institutional Review Board. Because this was an anonymous survey, written informed consent was not required. An introductory statement explained the study and indicated to potential participants that consent was implied by completing the survey.

The survey was administered directly via the VIN data collection portal, and branching logic was used to display only questions relevant to each participant. The first question was a screening tool to ensure respondents were clinical veterinarians practicing in the US. Veterinarians who self-identified as not in a US clinical practice (n = 26) or did not treat dogs (n = 52) were eliminated from further analysis. The body of the survey consisted primarily of short questions, for which participants were able to select one or more specific options to represent their experiences and perceptions regarding hemp/CBD products. Free-text boxes were provided for participants to enter brief alternative answers when none of the listed options applied to them. A final question at the end of the survey allowed for free-text entry of any comments participants chose to make about hemp/CBD products.

Results

A total of 2,208 responses were received, 78 of which were eliminated as per above, leaving a sample size of 2,130. Not all survey questions received responses; therefore, the number responding to that particular question is indicated for each question in the text and tables. Respondents practicing in each state in the US participated, with the largest percentages coming from California (341, 16%), Texas (142, 6.7%), Florida (113, 5.3%), New York (96, 4.5%), and Colorado (92, 4.3%). The number of respondents who work in a state in which recreational marijuana was legal at the time of the survey (AK, CA, CO, DC, ME, MA, NV, OR, VM, WA) was 759 (35.6%) leaving 1,371 respondents (64.4%) working in states that had not legalized recreational marijuana as of May, 2018. Respondents were asked to indicate the year in which they graduated veterinary school. The graduation years were classified into four cohorts: 1989 or earlier (448, 21.1%), 1990–1999 (473, 22.3%), 2000–2009 (606, 28.6%), and 2010 or later (595, 28.0%).

Knowledge Questions

Respondents were asked to indicate their knowledge level, using a 4 point Likert scale from 1 = “have no idea” to 4 = “know a lot,” in response to questions about marijuana and/or CBD products. The first question enquired about their knowledge level regarding the differences between marijuana and CBD products (n = 2,108). The largest number (1,207, 57.3%) reported “know some” followed by “know a lot” (426, 20.2%). When asked about the toxic effects of marijuana in dogs (n = 2,123), the majority reported “knowing some” (1,147, 54.0%), followed by “know a lot” (824, 38.8%). Respondents were less knowledgeable about the therapeutic effects of CBD products in dogs (n = 2,126); 930 (43.7%) reported “knowing some” and 745 (35.0%) reported “not knowing much.” Similarly, they were less knowledgeable about the toxic effects of CBD products in dogs (n = 2,126), in which 637 (30.0%) reported “knowing some” and 930 (43.7%) reported “not knowing much.” (Table ​ (Table1 1 ).

Table 1

Veterinarians self-reported knowledge level regarding marijuana and hemp/CBD products in dogs.

Have no idea Do not know much Know some Know a lot
The differences between marijuana products and hemp/CBD products
(n = 2108)
105
(5.0%)
370
(17.6%)
1207
(57.3%)
426
(20.2%)
The toxic effects of marijuana in dogs
(n = 2123)
28
(1.3%)
124
(5.8%)
1147
(54.0%)
824
(38.8%)
The therapeutic effects of hemp/CBD
products in dogs (n = 2126)
261
(12.3%)
745
(35.0%)
930
(43.7%)
190
(8.9%)
The toxic effects of hemp/CBD products
in dogs (n = 2126)
394
(18.5%)
930
(43.7%)
637
(30.0%)
165
(7.8%)

Data presented as number of responses and percent of total responses in parenthesis.

The respondents were asked next how comfortable they feel talking to veterinary colleagues about CBD treatment for dogs (n = 2,127). Most felt comfortable (1,309, 61.5%), with 231 (10.9%) reporting feeling uncomfortable, 432 (20.3%) neutral, and 155 (7.3%) indicating they have not encountered the situation. When asked about their comfort level talking with clients, they were less comfortable: 967 (45.4%) reported feeling comfortable and 641 (29.9%) felt uncomfortable, 443 (20.8%) neutral, and 85 (4.0%) indicated they have not encountered the situation. A chi square test was used to assess differences in comfort level based on graduation year and legal status of recreational marijuana in the respondents’ state of residence. For these analyses, those who had not encountered the situation were removed. No differences were found based on legal status of marijuana in state of practice, but differences were found based on graduation date. Recent veterinary graduates were less comfortable talking to colleagues (chi square 29.71, p < 0.001) as well as clients (chi square 69.22, p < 0.001) (Figure ​ (Figure1 1 ).

Participants’ reported level of comfort in discussing CBD/hemp with colleagues (A) and with clients (B), based on year of graduation from veterinary school.

Frequency of CBD-Related Consultations

Veterinarians (n = 2,112) were asked how often their clients enquired about CBD products and the most common response was rarely (616, 29.2%), followed by weekly (609, 28.8%), monthly (558, 26.4%), never (172, 8.1%), and daily (157, 7.4%). These responses were significantly different based on respondents’ states’ marijuana laws (Table ​ (Table2). 2 ). Clients visiting veterinarians who work in states that have legalized recreational marijuana were more likely ask about CBD for their pets (chi square 358.90, p < 0.001).

Table 2

Reported frequency of clients seeking information about CBD for pets, based on legal status of recreational marijuana in state of practice.

State laws Never Rarely Monthly Weekly Daily
Legal (n = 752) 16 (2.1%) 100 (13.3%) 177 (23.5%) 353 (46.9%) 106 (14.1%)
Illegal (n = 1360) 156 (11.5%) 516 (37.9%) 381 (28.0%) 256 (18.8%) 51 (3.8%)

Data presented as number of responses and percent of total responses in parenthesis.

Participants (n = 2,128) were also asked to quantify how often they initiate discussions with clients about CBD products. The majority reported never (1,398, 65.7%), followed by rarely (413, 19.4%), weekly (140, 6.6%), monthly (132, 6.2%), and daily (45, 2.1%).

Conditions for Which CBD Was Discussed

Respondents who reported client-initiated conversations about CBD products (n = 1,940) were next asked to identify the specific conditions or diseases for which clients were seeking information. More than one response was possible, and the most common topics were pain management, anxiety, seizures, and storm/fireworks phobias. Respondents (n = 730) who reported initiating conversations with clients about CBD products were also asked to identify the specific conditions or diseases for which CBD products were discussed. Multiple selections were possible, and the most commonly discussed topics were pain management, anxiety, seizures, and storm/fireworks phobias (Table ​ (Table3 3 ).

Table 3

Common diseases/conditions for which clients sought information and for which veterinarians initiated conversations about CBD.

Condition Client sought information (n = 1940) Veterinarian initiated conversations (n = 730)
Pain management 1806 (93.1%) 614 (84.1%)
Anxiety 1341 (69.1%) 388 (53.2%)
Seizures 1089 (56.1%) 313 (42.9%)
Storm or fireworks phobias 531 (27.4%) 141 (19.3%)
Gastrointestinal diseases 203 (10.5%) 62 (8.5%)
Neoplastic/cancer 198 (10.2%) 67 (9.2%)
Motion sickness 149 (7.7%) 44 (6.0%)
Atopy or other skin conditions 132 (6.8%) 22 (3.0%)
Endocrinopathies 78 (4.0%) 15 (2.1%)
Infections 57 (2.9%) 8 (1.1%)
Appetite stimulation/anorexia 23 (1.2%) 23 (3.2%)
Palliative care 14 (0.7%) 17 (2.3%)
Osteoarthritis 12 (0.6%) 0
Other (e.g., everything, general) 67 (3.5%) 22 (3.0%)

Data presented as number of responses and percent of total responses in parenthesis.

Client Communication Regarding CBD

In order to gauge the degree with which veterinarians endorse the use of CBD products, participants were asked to quantify the frequency with which they advise clients about CBD products, recommend CBD products, or prescribe CBD products. These results were then analyzed based on the legal status of recreational marijuana in respondents’ state of practice (Figure ​ (Figure2 2 ).

Reported frequency of advising about, recommending, and prescribing CBD products, based on the legal status of recreational marijuana in participants’ state of practice (A,C,E) and participants’ year of graduation (B,D,F).

Advising clients about CBD products (n = 2,125) was considered the lowest level of endorsement. The largest number of participants reported never (938, 44.1%) or rarely (615, 28.9%) advising their clients about CBD products. A smaller number reported sometimes (401, 18.9%), or frequently (171, 8.0%). When asked for all the reasons why they did not advise clients about CBD products (n = 938), the most common answer was that they don’t feel knowledgeable enough (639, 68.1%), followed by the field needs more research (560, 59.57%), it is illegal (458, 48.8%), concerns about toxicity (185, 19.7%) and do not think clients would be receptive (35, 3.7%). “Other” reasons included concerns about product consistency and purity or the fact that they had not been asked.

Recommending CBD products constituted the next level of endorsement. Participants were asked how often they recommend CBD products (n = 2,124). The majority reported never (1,409, 66.3%) or rarely (346, 16.3%). A minority reported sometimes (260, 12.2%), or frequently (109, 5.1%). When asked for all the reasons why they did not recommend CBD products (n = 1,409), the most common answer was that the field needs more research (912, 64.7%), followed by not feeling knowledgeable enough (888, 63.0%), it is illegal (751, 53.3%), concerns about toxicity (301, 21.4%) and do not think clients would be receptive (45, 3.2%). The most common “Other” reasons included concerns about product consistency and purity and the feeling that other options with better research exist.

Lastly, participating veterinarians were asked how often they prescribe CBD products (n = 2,130). The majority reported never (1,735, 82.1%) or rarely (187, 8.8%). A minority reported sometimes (125, 5.9%), or frequently (67, 3.2%). When asked for all the reasons why they did not prescribe CBD products (n = 1,735), the most common answer was that it is illegal (1,003, 57.8%), followed by the field needs more research (997, 57.5%), don’t feel knowledgeable enough (967, 55.7%), concerns about toxicity (325, 18.7%), and do not think clients would be receptive (49, 2.8%). “Other” reasons included the fact that it can be bought over the counter and the lack of product consistency and purity.

Participants who reported living in states with legalized recreational marijuana were more likely to advise clients about CBD products (chi square 81.64, p < 0.001), and recommend CBD products (chi square 11.04, p < 0.012), but were not statistically more likely to prescribe CBD products (chi square 1.07, p = 0.784). Veterinarians in earlier graduating classes were more likely to recommend CBD products (chi square 20.58, p < 0.015), and prescribe CBD products (chi square 20.24, p = 0.016), but not to advise clients about CBD products (chi square 13.75, p = 0.132).

Clinical Experience With CBD Products

Participants were asked if they have had any clinical experience with CBD products in dogs. This could include direct observation or client reports (n = 2,130). Slightly more than half reported yes (1,194, 56.1%) and 936 (43.9%) said no. Participants who indicated they had clinical experience with CBD were asked a series of questions related to their experience with specific forms of CBD as well as perceived benefits and side effects. The forms of CBD that participants were asked about included biscuits or edibles, tablets or capsules, CBD oil or extracts or tinctures, and oil or cream for topical application. Among these, participants reported the most familiarity with liquid (oil extracts or tinctures) and edible (biscuits/edibles) formulations of CBD (Table ​ (Table4 4 ).

Table 4

Veterinarians’ clinical experience with CBD products in dog.

CBD formulation None A little A moderate amount Quite a lot Extensive
Biscuits or edibles
(n = 1143)
465 (40.7%) 475 (41.6%) 146
(12.8%)
45 (3.9%) 12 (1.0%)
Tablets or capsules
(n = 1141)
699 (61.3%) 305 (26.7%) 99
(8.7%)
27 (2.4%) 11 (1.0%)
Oil or extracts or tinctures
(n = 1117)
155 (13.2%) 613 (52.1%) 266
(22.6%)
103 (8.8%) 40 (3.4%)
Oil or cream for topical
application (n = 1140)
798 (70.0%) 253 (22.2%) 61
(5.4%)
18 (1.6%) 10 (0.9%)

Data presented as number of responses and percent of total responses in parenthesis.

Several potential uses of CBD products were listed and participants were asked to indicate if, in their observations or client reports, CBD products had had a harmful effect, no effect or positive/helpful on each of them. Those who responded NA (not observed/not applicable) were removed from analysis. The areas in which veterinarians reported observing (either first-hand or via client reports) the most positive effects included: analgesia for chronic and acute pain, anxiety, and seizure frequency or severity (Table ​ (Table5 5 ).

Table 5

Perceived impact of CBD products for common canine medical conditions, listed alphabetically.

Condition Very helpful Somewhat helpful No effect Somewhat harmful Very harmful
Analgesia for acute pain (n = 708) 161
(22.7%)
424
(59.9%)
116
(16.4%)
5
(0.7%)
2
(0.3%)
Analgesia for chronic pain (n = 1019) 348
(34.2%)
575
(56.4%)
85
(8.3%)
9
(0.9%)
2
(0.2%)
Anxiety (n = 833) 180
(21.6%)
546
(65.5%)
97
(11.6%)
7
(0.8%)
3
(0.4%)
Atopy (n = 167) 10
(6.0%)
50
(29.9%)
99
(59.3%)
4
(2.4%)
4
(2.4%)
Bacterial or fungal infection (n = 129) 4
(3.1%)
12
(9.3%)
107
(82.9%)
4
(3.1%)
2
(1.6%)
Diabetes mellitus (n = 104) 3
(2.9%)
13
(12.5%)
82
(78.8%)
3
(2.9%)
3
(2.9%)
Diarrhea (n = 171) 11
(6.4%)
35
(20.5%)
109
(63.7%)
12
(7.0%)
4
(2.3%)
Hyperadrenocorticism (n = 96) 2
(2.1%)
16
(16.7%)
73
(76.0%)
2
(2.1%)
3
(3.1%)
Hypothyroidism (n = 94) 4
(4.3%)
9
(9.6%)
76
(80.9%)
2
(2.1%)
3
(3.2%)
Motion sickness (n = 224) 31
(13.8%)
143
(63.8%)
46
(20.5%)
1
(0.4%)
3
(1.3%)
Seizure frequency or severity (n = 612) 132
(21.6%)
340
(55.6%)
125
(20.4%)
8
(1.3%)
7
(1.1%)
Storm or fireworks phobia (n = 379) 46
(12.1%)
232
(61.2%)
91
(24.0%)
8
(2.1%)
2
(0.5%)
Vomiting (n = 266) 32
(12.0%)
119
(44.7%)
104
(39.1%)
9
(3.4%)
2
(0.8%)

Data presented as number of responses and percent of total responses in parenthesis.

Participants were also asked about witnessed or reported side effects, with the most common side effect being sedation. This was reported by 28.9% of participants to occur in 1–10% of dogs. The percent of participants who reported sedation as a side effect in 11–25% of dogs was 12.5%. The next most common side effect was polyphagia, reported by 10.0% of participants to occur in 1–10% of dogs. With the exception of sedation, all other potential side effects were reported by over 80% of participants as never occurring (Table ​ (Table6 6 ).

Table 6

Perceived side effects of CBD products for common canine medical conditions.

Side effect Never 1–10% of dogs 11–25% of dogs 26–50% of dogs 51–75% of dogs 76–100% of dogs
Anorexia
(n = 1144)
1053
(92.0%)
70
(6.1%)
11
(1.0%)
4
(0.3%)
3
(0.3%)
3
(0.3%)
Bradycardia
(n = 1138)
1003
(88.1%)
81
(7.1%)
30
(2.6%)
16
(1.4%)
5
(0.4%)
3
(0.3%)
Constipation
(n = 1140)
1109
(97.3%)
23
(2.0%)
2
(0.2%)
6
(0.5%)
0 0
Diarrhea
(n = 1134)
1039
(91.6%)
76
(6.7%)
9
(0.8%)
6
(0.5%)
2
(0.2%)
2
(0.2%)
Hypertension
(n = 1136)
1123
(98.9%)
7
(0.6%)
2
(0.2%)
3
(0.3%)
1
(0.1%)
0
Hypotension
(n = 1136)
1078
(94.9%)
39
(3.4%)
12
(1.1%)
4
(0.4%)
2
(0.2%)
1
(0.1%)
Increased anxiety
(n = 1139)
993
(87.2%)
87
(7.6%)
25
(2.2%)
20
(1.8%)
7
(0.6%)
7
(0.6%)
Polydipsia
(n = 1137)
1051
(92.4%)
57
(5.0%)
17
(1.5%)
6
(0.5%)
3
(0.3%)
3
(0.3%)
Polyphagia
(n = 1143)
949
(83.0%)
114
(10.0%)
37
(3.2%)
24
(2.1%)
15
(1.3%)
4
(0.3%)
Sedation
(n = 1148)
560
(48.8%)
332
(28.9%)
144
(12.5%)
68
(5.9%)
25
(2.2%)
19
(1.7%)
Seizures
(n = 1142)
1110
(97.2%)
24
(2.1%)
3
(0.3%)
2
(0.2%)
2
(0.2%)
1
(0.1%)
Tachycardia
(n = 1137)
1066
(93.8%)
44
(3.9%)
17
(1.5%)
10
(0.9%)
0 0
Vomiting
(n = 1139)
1035
(90.9%)
74
(6.5%)
18
(1.6%)
6
(0.5%)
4
(0.4%)
2
(0.2%)

Data presented as number of responses and percent of total responses in parenthesis.

Legal/Ethical Issues and Research Regarding CBD/Marijuana

The last series of questions asked participants about their views on a variety of topics related to CBD and marijuana. Two of these questions referred to guidance on the topic offered through state organizations. For both veterinary state organizations and state veterinary boards, few participants reported feeling that these entities provided sufficient guidance regarding the use of CBD/marijuana in animals for them to practice within the state or federal law. These questions pertaining to veterinary state organizations and state veterinary boards were analyzed to determine if there were any significant differences in responses based on year of graduation or the legal status of recreational marijuana in the state in which respondents’ practice veterinary medicine. A significant difference based on year of graduation was found for participants’ views of the guidance offered by their veterinary state organization (chi square 30.18, p = 0.011), whereby those who graduated more recently report higher agreement levels. Similarly, those practicing in states with legal recreational marijuana reported higher agreement with the statement that their veterinary state organization provides sufficient guidance (chi square 11.16, p = 0.0480). When asked about their state veterinary board guidance, there was a difference in perception based on year of graduation, with more recent graduates reporting higher agreement levels (chi square 30.04, p = 0.012). No differences were found based on legal status of marijuana in state of practice (Table ​ (Table7 7 ).

Table 7

Perception of state organizations’ provision of sufficient guidance regarding the use of CBD/marijuana in animals to practice within the state or federal laws.

State organization support Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Does not apply/don’t know
My veterinary state organization has provided sufficient guidance for me to practice within the state or federal laws (n = 1194) 266
(22.3%)
376
(31.5%)
286
(24.0%)
206
(17.3%)
49
(4.1%)
11
(0.9%)
My state veterinary board has provided sufficient guidance for me to practice within the state or federal laws (n = 1193) 262
(22.0%)
385
(32.3%)
283
(23.7%)
205
(17.2%)
50
(4.2%)
8
(0.7%)

Data presented as number of responses and percent of total responses in parenthesis.

The next set of questions included two questions about the perceived need for additional research, and six questions assessing views of legal status of CBD and marijuana for humans and animals. The results of these questions are summarized in Tables ​ Tables8, 8 , ​ ,9. 9 . Differences in responses based on the legal status of recreational marijuana in the participants’ state as well as date of graduation were assessed with chi square tests and significant differences noted. When asked about the need for additional research about the therapeutic use and toxicity of hemp/CBD in dogs, whose who graduated more recently (chi square 46.61, p < 0.001) as well as those practicing in states with legal marijuana (chi square 28.43, p < 0.001) were more likely to agree that more research is needed. There were no differences between groups for the question related to additional research on the toxicity of marijuana in dogs.

Table 8

Participants’ views regarding the need for hemp/CBD/marijuana research.

Research Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Does not apply/don’t know
The therapeutic use and toxicity of hemp/CBD in dogs warrants rigorous veterinary research (n = 1193) 34
(2.8%)
42
(3.5%)
83
(7.0%)
365
(30.6%)
666
(55.8%)
3
(0.3%)
The toxicity of marijuana in dogs warrants rigorous veterinary research (n = 1192) 27
(2.3%)
102
(8.6%)
209
(17.5%)
453
(38.0%)
398
(33.4%)
3
(0.3%)

Data presented as number of responses and percent of total responses in parenthesis.

Table 9

Participants’ views regarding legal status of hemp/CBD/marijuana as Schedule 1 drugs.

Legal status Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Does not apply/don’t know
CBD should remain a Schedule I drug as defined by the DEA
(n = 1191)
706
(59.3%)
270
(22.7%)
132
(11.1%)
36
(3.0%)
45
(3.8%)
2
(0.2%)
Marijuana should remain a Schedule I drug as defined by the DEA (n = 1193) 534
(44.8%)
305
(25.6%)
169
(14.2%)
107
(9.0%)
78
(6.5%)
0

Data presented as number of responses and percent of total responses in parenthesis.

When asked if CBD should remain a Schedule I drug as defined by the DEA, those who graduated more recently report lower agreement levels (chi square 31.26, p = 0.008) as did those in states that had legalized marijuana (chi square 25.47, p < 0.001). This same pattern was observed for the question on whether marijuana should remain a Schedule I drug as defined by the DEA (graduation year: chi square 47.21, p < 0.001; legalized marijuana status: chi square 27.12, p < 0.001) (Tables ​ (Tables8, 8 , ​ ,9 9 ).

Participants were asked to indicate their agreement level with several statements regarding the legal status of hemp/CBD and marijuana for both animals and humans. For each statement in Table ​ Table10, 10 , there was a significant difference in stated level of agreement based on graduation year and their state’s recreational marijuana laws, with the exception of hemp/CBD products for animals (only significantly different based on state’s recreational marijuana laws and not graduation year) (Table ​ (Table10 10 ).

Table 10

Participants’ views regarding legal status of hemp/CBD/marijuana in animals and humans.

Legal status Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Does not apply/don’t know State legal status Graduation year
I think marijuana products for humans should remain illegal at the Federal level
(n = 1193)
599
(50.2%)
328
(27.5%)
138
(11.6%)
67
(5.6%)
37
(3.1%)
24
(2.0%)
chi square 17.99 p < 0.003 chi square 46.64 p < 0.001
I think hemp/CBD products for humans should remain illegal at the Federal level
(n = 1194)
740
(62.0%)
309
(25.9%)
79
(6.6%)
29
(2.4%)
11
(0.9%)
26
(2.2%)
chi square 20.08 p = 0.001 chi square 38.17 p = 0.001
I think marijuana products for animals should remain illegal at the Federal level
(n = 1,193)
474
(39.7%)
243
(20.4%)
156
(13.1%)
184
(15.4%)
92
(7.7%)
44
(3.7%)
chi square 12.79, p = 0.025 chi square 28.45 p = 0.019
I think hemp/CBD products for animals should remain illegal at the Federal level
(n = 1,194)
697
(58.4%)
306
(25.6%)
98
(8.2%)
44
(3.7%)
14
(1.2%)
35
(2.9%)
chi square 24.86 p < 0.001 ns *

Data presented as number of responses and percent of total responses in parenthesis.

Lastly, participants were asked to report their views on the potential benefits of marijuana and CBD products for humans as well as their support in using CBD products for animals from both a medical and ethical viewpoint. Most participants agreed or strongly agreed that both marijuana and CBD products offer benefits for humans and expressed support for use of CBD products for animals. There was a significant difference based on graduation year, with more recent graduates reporting higher agreement levels for the question related to beneficial medical uses of marijuana products for humans (chi square 25.95, p = 0.039). This difference was not observed for the question on the beneficial medical uses of hemp/CBD products for humans. There were also no differences based on year of graduation or laws regarding recreational marijuana in participants’ state of practice, for questions related to the benefits of marijuana or CBD/hemp products for animals (Tables ​ (Tables11, 11 , ​ ,12 12 ).

Table 11

Participants’ views regarding the potential medical benefits of hemp/CBD/marijuana for humans.

Benefits Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Does not apply/don’t know
I think there are beneficial medical uses of marijuana products for humans
(n = 1191)
36
(3.0%)
13
(1.1%)
98
(8.2%)
380
(31.9%)
634
(53.2%)
0
I think there are beneficial medical uses of hemp/CBD products for humans
(n = 1190)
26
(2.2%)
10 (0.8%) 85 (7.1%) 358 (30.1%) 666 (56.0%) 0

Data presented as number of responses and percent of total responses in parenthesis.

Table 12

Participants’ reported level of support regarding the potential medical benefits of hemp/CBD/marijuana for dogs.

Benefits Strongly disapprove Disapprove Neutral Approve Strongly Approve
Medicinal uses of hemp/CBD products for dogs from a medical standpoint
(n = 1193)
23
(1.9%)
32
(2.7%)
157
(13.2%)
444
(37.2%)
537
(45.0%)
Medicinal uses of hemp/CBD products for dogs from a moral standpoint
(n = 1192)
19
(1.6%)
33
(2.8%)
248
(20.8%)
409
(34.3%)
483
(40.5%)

Data presented as number of responses and percent of total responses in parenthesis.

Discussion

The current study investigated veterinarians’ views and experiences surrounding CBD products for dogs. A recent national study assessing dog owners’ views and behaviors surrounding CBD product usage for their dogs found that the most commonly reported use by owners of CBD products was for pain relief, followed by reduction of inflammation, and relief from anxiety (15). Pain relief was also the predominant use reported by owners in a 2016 study (16). Significant side effects were reported by <5% of owners, with most participants reported not observing any side effects (15). The significant side effect observed most frequently was lethargy yet even this effect was reported by only 3.9% of owners.

These findings assessing owners’ experiences were validated in the current study. When veterinarians were asked what specific conditions or diseases clients enquired about treating with CBD products, the most common responses were pain management, anxiety and seizures. These were also the top three topics listed by veterinarians when asked for conditions about which they initiated CBD conversations with their clients.

When asked about potential benefits of CBD products for a variety of conditions, veterinarians reported observing (either first-hand or through owner reports) that CBD was the most helpful for chronic pain (reported as very helpful by 34% and somewhat helpful by 56% of veterinarians) followed by acute pain (very helpful, 23% and somewhat helpful by 60% of veterinarians). CBD was also deemed to be helpful for reducing anxiety and seizure frequency/severity by over 75% of participants. The recent clinical trials on CBD for seizures (13) and pain management (14) support these veterinarians’ reported experiences.

A variety of CBD products are currently available for purchase and participants reported the most familiarity with biscuits/edibles, yet even for these, approximately 40% of veterinarians reported having no experience. Interestingly, when owners were asked what form of CBD they gave to their pets, the most common response was capsules/pills and biscuits/edibles were a distant second (56.9% compared to 29.3%).

In general, veterinarians appear reticent to initiate conversations with clients about CBD, with 85% reporting they rarely or never initiated such conversations. Few reported advising clients about CBD (73% either never or rarely), and even fewer recommended (83% either never or rarely) or prescribed (91% either never or rarely) CBD products. The most common reason given for not advising about or recommending CBD was not feeling knowledgeable enough. When asked why they did not prescribe CBD products, the most common response was the fact that it is illegal. It is interesting to note that participants who work in states that have legalized recreational marijuana are more likely to advise about and recommend CBD products, but even they do not prescribe. More experienced veterinarians were more likely to recommend and prescribe, but not to advise clients about CBD products. Yet, even with these differences, most veterinarians in the current study, do not advise about, recommend or prescribe CBD products.

Given the dearth of information available about CBD products, it is not surprising that veterinarians do not feel knowledgeable about the topic. To this point, a significant number of participants reported not knowing much or anything about the therapeutic (47%) or toxic (62%) effects of CBD products. It is also clear that the participating veterinarians do not feel they are obtaining the information they need from their state veterinary organizations or state veterinary boards. When asked, <25% of respondents feel these entities provide sufficient guidance for them to practice within the state or federal law. Unfortunately, this lack of knowledge, and therefore veterinarians’ confidence to initiate CBD related conversations with their clients leaves pet owners with limited options to obtain reliable information. It is alarming, but not surprising, that CBD company websites are the source most consulted by pet owners for CBD information (16). This does not appear to be due to owners’ comfort levels; over 83% of surveyed owners reported feeling comfortable talking to their vet about CBD (15). Yet, results from this current study show that only 45% of veterinarians feel comfortable talking to clients about CBD. Even more telling, only 62% of surveyed veterinarians feel comfortable talking to other veterinarians about the topic.

Veterinarians in the current sample overwhelmingly support further research into both the therapeutic use and toxicity of CBD as well as the toxicity of marijuana. The majority do not feel that CBD or marijuana should remain defined as Schedule I drugs by the DEA, nor feel that these substances should remain illegal for use in animals or humans. Taken together, these responses suggest that the veterinary community is receptive to exploring the potential of cannabis products and hungers for scientific data and clinical trials. These results are similar to those of a recent study exploring attitudes toward marijuana among medical students attending an allopathic medical school in Colorado. These students supported marijuana legal reform (reclassifying marijuana so that it is no longer a Schedule 1 substance), increased research, and medicinal uses of marijuana, but voiced concerns about potential risks and therefore, many expressed reluctance about recommending marijuana to patients (17). Another study of health care providers working in Washington, USA had similar results whereby they reported the need for additional training and education; and given their current knowledge level, did not feel comfortable recommending medical cannabis (18). New York physicians (19) as well as a national sample of oncologists (20) share similar sentiments. In fact, these challenges are faced by physicians worldwide (21–23). A limitation of this study is that only veterinarians who subscribe to VIN (Veterinary Information Network) participated in this study. Although VIN has a large member base, it does not represent all veterinarians. It is possible that members of VIN may have different views on this topic than all veterinarians; therefore, we must be cautious to not extrapolate these results to the entire profession. Nevertheless, the authors believe the results are informative on this timely topic and the conclusion that more research is needed on the potential benefits and potential toxicities of CBD products can be generalized to the profession outside of VIN. The authors believe that VIN membership is reflective of the overall population of veterinarians in the U.S. VIN consists of 34, 917 members located in all 50 states. The average age of VIN members is 45.5 years compared to the average age of veterinarians in the U.S. of 44.1 years. Women constitute 69% of VIN members and 65% of U.S. veterinarians (24).

The sales of natural pet supplements nearly doubled between 2008 and 2014 with no signs of slowing down; U.S. retail sales are projected to grow 3–5% annually (25). The use of CBD products for animals is expected to increase as pet owners look for alternative ways to care for their pets. And while pet treats and food are regulated, pet supplements fall in a gray unregulated zone because they are not classified as drugs or food. Given the constantly changing laws and regulations on cannabis products as well as the lack of scientific study, obtaining accurate information on cannabis products is critically important. Certainly, current laws and political forces make it challenging for veterinarians to gain the information they need to feel confident discussing CBD with their clients and offering sound advice, yet it is imperative for the veterinary field to rise to this challenge. Given the positive feelings expressed by veterinarians in this study, it is suggested that all those affected by both the potential benefits as well as the risks, work together for legislative change that would allow for the expansion of knowledge needed to best capitalize on this potential medical tool for companion animals.

Author Contributions

All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication.

Conflict of Interest Statement

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Hemp 101

“So what is CBD, anyway?”
It’s a question I am asked every day. There’s a lot of doubt, misinformation, and just plain confusion out there. Let’s clear it up, shall we?

CBD is short for cannabidiol, and it is one of many naturally occurring compounds found in both Hemp). These plant-based, fat-soluble molecules (including THC) are all known as cannabinoids. Along with many other natural products, cannabinoids work on the body’s endocannabinoid system (or ECS), which is a master regulatory of managing stress, free radical damage, and the immune system.

Our botanical and wellness products contain a proprietary blend of non-psychoactive cannabinoids derived from organic, sun-grown hemp.

There are many questions that might be top of mind for you, so let’s address them individually.

What are the benefits to using CBD with my pet?
CBD interacts with a pet’s endocannabinoid system – the central regulatory system known to affect bodily processes such as digestion, anxiety, mood, discomfort, and sleep. CBD also contains Omega 3 and 6 fatty acids and contains antioxidants which can have long term health benefits.

Why use Austin and Kat for healthy pets?
We love our pets…to help them, to make their day brighter is the least we can do because we get so much joy and love back from them…and when you see how they react you’ll realize the impact CBD and our natural products can have on them.

What are cannabinoids?
Cannabinoids are naturally occurring antioxidants that help the body to manage stress and balance daily life.

What are antioxidants?
Antioxidants are protective molecules for plants, pets, and people. They work inside the body to calm the nerves, remove dangerous free radicals, and promote homeostasis.

What is homeostasis and why is it important for my pet?
Homeostasis is a state of balance, when you and your pet are optimized for good health.Antioxidants like CBD rebalance the body & mind to relieve physical and mental stress.

How was the recipe formulated?
If you’ve read the news you’ll know that research in this field is limited but among the most exciting areas of scientific study today. For me, the proof is in the pudding. You know your pet and it will be obvious to you that there’s something unique about cannabinoids. Our inhouse science team spent tireless hours on research and development, partnering with innovative companies that lead the field in cutting-edge scientific and clinical research. Each new formula has been optimized with synergizing antioxidants that complement and elevate the effects of CBD through a total-systems approach to wellness. The result? Truly efficacious products that deliver long-lasting and targeted support.

Is all CBD oil the same?
Not all CBD extracts are equal – we never use ultra-processed hemp oils. To save time and money, most companies produce ultra-processed hemp oils that are manipulated and adulterated at an industrial scale.

What is ultra-processed CBD?
Like comparing pre-sliced white bread to a nice homemade whole grain loaf, ultra-processed hemp oils are lower quality extracts that contain little else but CBD.

Do ultra-processed CBD oils work the same?
Without the synergizing effects of other cannabinoids and terpenes, inferior ‘CBD-only’oils miss the mark on delivering hemp’s full collection of long-lasting benefits.

What is an adulterated oil?
Adulterated oils often include toxic chemicals, heavy metals, or contaminants. Not only does Treehouse preserve the largest variety of beneficial compounds from hemp, their methods never use or leave behind toxic chemicals, heavy metals, or contaminants.

What else is found in hemp?
Hemp is chock full of cannabinoids that are similar to CBD (such as CBG & CBN).Each one plays a role to balance and calm the body, working together as antioxidants. Cannabinoids are not the only antioxidants found in hemp.Another group, called terpenes, work alongside cannabinoids to benefit the body.

What are terpenes?
Terpenes are also antioxidants. They help cannabinoids like CBD to remove free radicals.Using them together with cannabinoids enhances their calming and soothing effects.

Do other plants make cannabinoids and terpenes?
Different cannabinoids and terpenes have been discovered in all sorts of other plants! Austin and Kat deep-dives into the science of combining natural products that work together.

What are natural products?
Natural products are substances produced by living organisms, such as CBD from hemp. While they work okay alone, they work best when all together – this is known as the entourage effect.

What is the entourage effect?
The entourage effect happens when many natural products work together and synergize in the body. Austin and Kat specializes in selecting key ingredients just for this purpose, elevating the effects of CBD.

What is synergism?
Certain natural products combine with each other to produce enhanced benefits that you would not observe when using each of them alone.

Can My Pet Safely Use Austin And Kat Products If They’re Taking Medications Or Supplements?
As always, consult your veterinarian before adding any supplement to your pet’s daily wellness regimen. Our products contain no artificial preservatives or unnecessary additives, but even natural products can have unique interactions with certain pharmaceuticals and medications.

Is a Hemp-derived CBD Extract Safe For My Pet?
The most important lesson we’ve taken from our years of experience in the industry is ‘not every hemp oil extract is created equally.’ Everyone’s big safety concern is not from the consumption of CBD, but from those that opt for unsafe, cheap means of growing hemp and extracting oil.

We’ve done a deep-dive into the science of safe extraction in order to deliver a reliable and quality product that we’re happy to share with our pets and yours. The key is to hold to rigorous internal standards, and to never rely on distilled and adulterated oils (rife with dangerous solvents, trace pesticides, and toxic metals). More importantly, we test our products through and through, from the flower to the extract to the finished blend.

Can your hemp extracts get my pet high?
Absolutely not. As safety is our top priority, all Austin and Kat products have non-detectable amounts of psychoactive THC (delta-9 THC).

Is psychoactive THC dangerous?
We’d be the first to defend the physical and mental benefits of a little THC when humans use it responsibly (Kat’s husband, Tim, is a major advocate of microdosing all cannabinoids for human health and wellness, and he even created a human line tailored to that purpose). But the nervous systems of dogs and cats are very different from humans, and they have greater numbers of cannabinoid receptors distributed around unique parts of the body and nervous system. Dogs display neurotoxic responses to THC exposure that give veterinarians great concern about the long term effect of exposing animals to low-dose THC products. Luckily, a full spectrum of other non-intoxicating cannabinoids in hemp like CBD, CBG, CBC, and even sister molecules of THC known as isomers all work together to deliver a potent (and safe) entourage effect on the endocannabinoid system.

Does CBD need psychoactive THC?
A little CBD goes a long way to help mellow out the anxiety-inducing effects of THC, many other cannabinoids in hemp happily take the place of THC when the relationship is turned around. In short, the calming effects and relief we all look for in CBD get along just fine without psychoactive compounds.|

How do you extract your hemp oil?
We rely on the gold standard of oil extraction methods known as supercritical CO2 (sounds high-tech right? The good news is you trade in all of those dangerous chemical solvents for plain old carbon dioxide, the same gas we exhale when breathing). We’re proud to offer your pets the cleanest and purest extraction methods possible, the same used by pharmaceutical companies and the human supplement industry.

Do You 3rd-party Test Your Products?
We triple 3rd-party test our products for absolute certainty in their safety and efficacy. We enlist the help of the finest independent and accredited laboratories to screen our flower, extract, and finished products. First, the raw plant material is tested for an exhaustive collection of pesticides, herbicides, microbes, and mycotoxins . Next, our hemp oil extract is re-tested for contaminants and heavy metals, and then analyzed for a consistent cannabinoid and terpene profile. Finally, our finished product is 3rd-party tested to ensure we’ve hit our marks across the board for potency and safety. Only then, after this triplicate quality assurance process, do we approve our products for sale.

Do you ever use hemp from outside of the US?
Never – We only use domestic hemp, sun-grown in the USA by organic practices from Treehouse. Industrial hemp of seed and stalk that comes from overseas-suppliers is intended for fiber and paper, not next-generation wellness products. While hempseed oil has a unique cannabinoid profile of its own, the optimal concentrations of cannabinoids that make up ‘CBD oil’ are found most densely packed in the flowering plant. We ensure a consistent and efficacious cannabinoid profile in all of our extracts by both growing and processing within the United States, assuring our quality standards are met by keeping a careful eye on the process.