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What Is Evening Primrose Oil?

A supplement commonly recommended for conditions that cause pain

Cathy Wong is a nutritionist and wellness expert. Her work is regularly featured in media such as First For Women, Woman's World, and Natural Health.

Meredith Bull, ND, is a licensed naturopathic doctor with a private practice in Los Angeles. She helped co-author the first integrative geriatrics textbook, "Integrative Geriatric Medicine."

Verywell / Anastasia Tretiak

Evening primrose oil is extracted from the seeds of evening primrose ( Oenothera biennis ), a plant native to North America. It gets its name from its yellow blossoms, which bloom in the evening.

The oil contains gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and other omega-6 fatty acids that have both anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving, or analgesic, properties.

This article explores the available research on evening primrose oil, what it's commonly taken for, and potential side effects. You'll also learn about common dosages and how to store it safely.

What Is Evening Primrose Oil Used For?

Evening primrose oil is not an essential oil commonly used for aromatherapy. Rather, it is one that can be taken by mouth.

Alternative healthcare providers believe that evening primrose oil can aid in the treatment of numerous health conditions, including skin conditions and nerve and joint pain.

It’s also sometimes taken for premenstrual syndrome (PMS), or symptoms leading up to menstrual periods, or the transition to menopause, or the end of menstruation.

Many of these potential benefits are attributed to GLA, a fatty acid found in soybeans, walnuts, seeds, and vegetable oils like rapeseed, canola, and linseed oils.

Some of the claims are supported by studies, but research is limited overall.

Menstrual Conditions

Evening primrose oil is commonly recommended for cyclical breast pain, which is linked to the menstrual cycle and occurs about a week before your period.

Research on this use is mixed, but seven of 10 clinical studies included in a 2019 research review suggested that evening primrose oil was helpful for breast pain.

For example, one study found that women who took 2 grams (g) of evening primrose oil or 2 g evening primrose oil plus 400 IU vitamin E daily for six months had slight improvements in the severity of their breast pain compared to those taking a placebo, or a sham treatment.

Evening primrose oil is also sometimes used for other symptoms of PMS or to alleviate menstrual cramps. However, to date, there is no conclusive evidence to support these claims.


Evening primrose oil has long been used to treat hot flashes during the transition to menopause. These sudden feelings of extreme warmth in the upper body are a form of flushing caused by hormonal changes that may be due to reduced levels of the hormone estradiol.

While the body of evidence is mixed, a 2013 study published in the Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics found that a daily, 500-milligram (mg) dose of evening primrose oil provided modest relief of hot flashes after six weeks.

Although the severity of hot flashes improved when compared to those given a placebo, the duration and frequency of the episodes did not.

Skin Conditions

Eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a skin condition that causes scaly and inflamed skin.

In the 1980s, evening primrose oil was heavily touted as an effective treatment for eczema by Canadian entrepreneur David Horrobin.

Despite a positive response from consumers, many of the claims have since been debunked by research.

According to a 2013 review of studies from the University of Minnesota Medical School, evening primrose oil proved no more effective in treating eczema than a placebo in each of the seven reviewed trials.

Many of the same conclusions have been drawn when investigating the effectiveness of evening primrose oil in treating psoriasis, a condition that causes scaly and itchy patches of skin, or acne, a condition in which pores get clogged with oil and dead skin cells.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a type of autoimmune disease, meaning one in which the immune system attacks its own cells and tissues. With RA, the body primarily attacks its own joints.

Some studies have suggested that GLA can reduce pain and improve function in people with mild to moderate rheumatoid arthritis. Most of the results to date have been modest at best, however.

A 2011 review of studies from Australia concluded that GLA found in evening primrose, borage seed, or blackcurrant seed oil provided moderate relief of pain and disability in people with rheumatoid arthritis.

The most promising results were seen in people who used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) at the same time, triggering a slight improvement in morning stiffness and joint movement.

Diabetic Neuropathy

In 1993, evening primrose oil was first proposed as a possible treatment of diabetic neuropathy, an often debilitating type of nerve pain that mainly affects the feet and legs. Since then, there has been minimal evidence to support these claims.

A 12-month study from India involving 80 people with severe diabetic neuropathy looked into the treatment. It concluded that a daily 500- to 1,000-mg dose of evening primrose oil combined with 400 mg of vitamin E achieved pain relief in 88% of the participants.

However promising, the conclusions were limited by the lack of a control (placebo) group to make a fair comparison. Still, the findings were significant enough to warrant further research.


An increased intake of unsaturated fat is associated with a reduced risk of osteoporosis, which is bone mineral loss that causes bones to become weak and brittle. This condition especially affect women after menopause.

Primrose oil is made up almost entirely of unsaturated fat and is believed by some to counter the bone loss seen in women with osteoporosis.

An 18-month study from South Africa reported that the combined use of primrose oil, fish oil, and calcium supplements either slowed or reversed bone loss in older women (average age 79) compared to a control group of similar-age women given a placebo.

According to the research, women given the treatment combination experienced an increase of femoral (thigh) bone density of 1.3% (versus a loss of 2.3% in the placebo group).

While the bone density of the lumbar spine, or lower back, remained unchanged in primrose oil group, the placebo group experienced a 3.2% decrease in bone density.


There is some very limited evidence that supports the use of evening primrose oil for PMS-related breast pain, menopause-related hot flashes, joint pain in those with rheumatoid arthritis, nerve pain in those with diabetic neuropathy, or osteoporosis. However, more research is needed.

Possible Side Effects

Like most supplements, there hasn't been much research assessing the long-term safety of evening primrose oil.

In some cases, primrose oil may cause side effects such as:

  • Stomach upset
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea

Most of the side effects are low-grade and resolve on their own once the treatment is stopped.

Precautions and Drug Interactions

Advise your healthcare provider if you are taking evening primrose oil—or any supplement—to avoid drug interactions and potentially serious side effects.

Evening primrose oil should be used cautiously if you have certain medical conditions. Among them:

  • Evening primrose oil may increase the risk of bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.
  • If you have upcoming surgery, you should stop taking evening primrose oil about two weeks beforehand to prevent excessive bleeding.
  • Pregnant women should not take evening primrose oil, since it may increase the risk of miscarriage or induced labor.

Evening primrose oil can interact with a significant number of medications, either reducing the drug's efficacy or triggering side effects. These include:

  • Anticoagulants (blood thinners) like Coumadin (warfarin), heparin, Lovenox (enoxaparin), Fragmin (dalteparin), and Plavix (clopidogrel)
  • NSAIDs like aspirin, Advil (ibuprofen), Aleve (naproxen), and Voltaren (diclofenac)
  • Antipsychotic drugs like Compro (prochlorperazine), Mellaril (thioridazine), Permatil (fluphenazine), Stelazine (trifluoperazine), and Thorazine (chlorpromazine)
  • HIV medications, such as lopinavir


Evening primrose oil can interact with some medications, such as blood thinners and NSAIDs. It can also be dangerous for those with certain medical conditions, such as bleeding disorders. Always consult your healthcare provider before taking it.

Dosage and Preparation

Supplements are not regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the same way drugs are. As such, there are no universal guidelines regarding the appropriate use of evening primrose oil.

Generally speaking, a daily dose of 500 mg is considered safe in adults, although many can tolerate up to 1,300 mg a day without any side effects.

Due to the lack of research, evening primrose should not be given to children without first consulting a healthcare professional.

Evening primrose oil is available in many health food stores and pharmacies. It is typically sold in gelcap form. Bottled primrose oil is also available, but is more difficult to accurately dose.


Evening primrose oil contains a high proportion of unsaturated fats, which are susceptible to a breakdown process called oxidative deterioration. If this occurs, the quality of the supplements is compromised.

Any product rich in unsaturated oil can go rancid, including bottled primrose oil and primrose oil gel caps.

How Long Evening Primrose Oil Lasts

To extend the shelf life of the oil, keep it in its original container (which is typically blue to prevent sun exposure) and store it in the refrigerator.

Although primrose oil can keep for up to six months if stored this way, try to buy only as much as you can use within three months. The concentration of seed oil content tends to drop after three to four months because of oxidative deterioration—even with refrigeration.

How to Tell If Evening Primrose Oil Has Gone Bad

Because primrose oil only has a faint scent, it can often be difficult to tell if it has gone bad. It may darken or smell funny, but not always.

As such, you should always play it safe and discard any supplement after its use-by date.


Evening primrose oil usually comes in gelcap form. There is no standard dosage, but about 500 mg to 1,300 a day may be taken. To avoid a drop in quality, only buy about a three-month supply at a time and store it in the fridge.

What to Look For

Dietary supplements like evening primrose oil are not required to undergo the rigorous testing that pharmaceutical drugs do.

Instead, the FDA imposes certain standards regarding the manufacturing and labeling of these supplements.

Even so, there is often considerable variation in the quality of supplements like evening primrose oil.

To ensure quality and safety, only buy supplements certified by an independent body, such as the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP), NSF International, or ConsumerLab.

If you are strictly vegan or vegetarian, only choose brands labeled "vegetarian-safe" or "vegetarian softgels." Unless this is stated clearly on the label, the capsule may be made with animal-based gelatin derived from cows or pigs.


There's some research that supports the use of evening primrose oil for certain conditions that cause pain. But since the studies are limited and often mixed, no firm conclusions about benefits can be made.

If you are interested in trying evening primrose oil, always discuss it with your healthcare provider and mention any medications you are taking and conditions that you have so that interactions and side effects can be avoided.

Keoni CBD Gummies Reviews – Hidden Negative Side Effects Exposed!

Keoni Cannabidiol is a CBD formula that comes in the form of Gummies. Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies is a breakthrough product that may help revitalize the body and may make you feel young again. Keoni CBD is easy to use and may provide your muscles with the strength they need. It may also help control inflammation and reduce pain in different parts of your body.

Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies: What they Are

Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies are CBDs derived from hemp. They are very popular, natural, and safe. According to the manufacturer, Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies is a relatively new product that has been produced using modern technology. The greatest advantage of this formula is that it’s non-habit forming and has no side effects.

According to the official website, Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies may help you relieve medical conditions, including sleep deprivation, tension, stress, inflammation, persistent agony, and aches, among others.

Also Read: Best CBD Oils

To this end, Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies is one of the leading CBD products in the US. Cannabidiol (CBD) has long been very popular with natural health practitioners for its unmatched health benefits but has only recently been welcomed into the spotlight with western medicine. CBD has been really helpful for mental health because some believe it helps reduce nervousness, anxiety, and depression. It may also help with blood flow in the body.

How Does Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies Work?

This Keoni product is a hemp-separated and non-habitual supplement that is securely made with no psychoactive properties. This means, when using this product, you won’t have to worry about overdependence.

Cannabinoids are neurotransmitters that help eliminate nervousness and may help alleviate torments in your body. It may help balance your body’s chemicals to improve your rest cycle so you can have a restful and peaceful sleep.

The CBD in Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies may help to regulate your endocannabinoid system (ECS), the system that controls your mental, intellectual, and general health. By providing a high-quality CBD, it may allow your ECS to function as it was intended which may help in areas such as, sleep deprivation, persistent pain, nervousness, and aggravation.

Do Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies have any Side Effects?

As stated earlier, Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies is a high-quality product. According to its manufacturer, Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies do not have any reported side effects. However, like all other supplements, you must still take the recommended dose to avoid any side effects that might result from an overdose.

Secondly, it isn’t recommended to use this supplement if you are on any prescription drug or have any underlying medical conditions. If you meet one of those two caveats, it is recommended that you discuss it with your doctor before you use this supplement.


Many people who have used Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies testify that they have experienced beneficial results. This product has been in the market for many years, and no adverse health effects have been reported against it. If you use it as recommended, you may enjoy the same health benefits.

How to Use Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies

Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies come in the form of easy-to-take gummies. You can take one gummy per day; preferably with a meal or however your doctor recommends.

When you use it correctly, you may see some of the following benefits:

Physical benefits

Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies may stimulate an anti-inflammatory response in your body that has the effect of reducing pains and aches. When you use it regularly, it may also support your flexibility, mobility, and joint health.

Psychological benefits

Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies may regulate your mood patterns, thereby helping to lower your stress and anxiety levels. It may also help you to sleep better and may help remedy bipolar disorders and depression.

Neurological Benefits

Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies may help you reduce cognitive decline, which is caused by advancement in age. It may also help you to be alert and focus more while at the same time reducing the frequency of memory loss, headaches, and migraines.

Buying Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies

If you want to buy Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies, they are only available for purchase on the official website.

If you are a new client, visit the official website, fill in the required details, and then submit. Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies will be delivered to you as soon as possible. Each order comes with free shipping. If for any reason you can’t order directly from the website, contact their customer service provider at a location close to you, and you’ll get help.

The good news is that the manufacturer offers a 90-day hassle-free money-back guarantee, meaning you won’t lose your money if you aren’t happy with the results. If you use Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies as directed and aren’t seeing any benefits you may contact the company to get a refund on your order.


If you’ve had some health issues like headaches, uneasiness, stress, excessive weight gain, kidney problems, heart intricacies, and are looking for a natural supplement to help reduce these issues, then try Keoni Cannabidiol Gummies today and see if they are the right solution for you.

Affiliate Disclosure:

The links contained in this product review may result in a small commission if you opt to purchase the product recommended at no additional cost to you. This goes towards supporting our research and editorial team and please know we only recommend high quality products.


Please understand that any advice or guidelines revealed here are not even remotely a substitute for sound medical advice from a licensed healthcare provider. Make sure to consult with a professional physician before making any purchasing decision if you use medications or have concerns following the review details shared above. Individual results may vary as the statements made regarding these products have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The efficacy of these products has not been confirmed by FDA-approved research. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

THCV: The Best THCV for Weight Loss and Energy

Have you heard of THCV? Like THC and CBD, THCV is a cannabinoid found in hemp, cannabis and other plants. However, it’s extremely rare and produces very different effects. Unlike THC, which is known for increasing hunger, THCV is often called the “sports car of cannabinoids,” “skinny pot” or “diet weed” for boosting energy and suppressing appetite.

“THCV decreases appetite, increases satiety, and up-regulates energy metabolism, making it a clinically useful remedy for weight loss and management of obesity and type 2 diabetic patients,” according to Biomed Central’s Journal of Cannabis Research.

In this article, we’ll describe the fascinating global hunt for THCV and explain the science behind THCV for weight loss, diabetes, anxiety, addiction, panic attacks and more.

If you’re interested in trying this incredible cannabinoid, the best THCV is produced by Rare Cannabinoid Company. The pioneering brand was the first in the world to create THCV oils and is still the only one offering real, lab-tested, verified THCV for sale.

Rare Cannabinoid Company offers a 500mg purified THCV oil tincture and a one-to-one blend of THCV with CBD from full spectrum Hawaiian hemp.

In addition to THCV, the Hawaiian company has an apothecary-style line-up of cannabinoids that are intended to be mixed and matched for customized wellness: CBN for sleep, CBC for mood, CBG for brain and body health and CBDA for nausea as well as 500mg to 3000mg CBD options and blends. CBDV, terpene blends and other minor cannabinoids will be for sale soon.

The deadly hunt for THCV cannabis strains

Until recently, the only way to get THCV was to find cannabis flowers that naturally produce larger amounts of THCV, namely African landrace sativas. Cannabis strain hunters traversed the Congo in dugout canoes searching for these almost mythical plants that locals used for energy and to prevent hunger. Expeditions were so dangerous that an Italian strain hunter died of malaria in the Congo in 2017.

Thankfully, advances in breeding and extraction have made it much easier to acquire THCV over the last couple years. Strains high in THCV include: Doug’s Varin, Durban Poison, Pineapple Purps, and Willie Nelson. However, even strains with the highest levels of THCV usually only contain around 1 to 5% of the cannabinoid. The rest is mostly THC, which probably cancels out most of THCV’s appetite suppressing properties.

To receive the stimulating, weight loss benefits of THCV, you need large amounts of THCV without THC. This is why we recommend Rare Cananbinoid Company’s purified THCV oil and THCV with CBD blend.

THCV is often referred to as “skinny pot” or “diet weed” for its ability to suppress appetite and aid weight loss. (Courtesy of Rare Cannabinoid Company)

THC vs. THCV for weight loss

So how does THCV suppress one’s appetite? All people have an endocannabinoid system (ECS), which plays a large role in regulating appetite, mood, sleep and physical health. Each cannabinoid interacts with this system in a different way.

The ECS has two main types of receptors, CB1 and CB2. THC activates the CB1 receptor, releasing hunger-promoting hormones. THCV does the opposite. It blocks the CB1 receptor, which suppresses hunger.

Scientists have known about the appetite-suppressing effect of blocking the CB1 receptor for a long time. However, pharmaceutical anti-obesity drug Rimonabant, which blocked the CB1 receptor, was withdrawn from the market for causing serious depressive side effects.

Amazingly, this human study found that THCV decreased appetite without causing any negative side effects as it does not damage the neural reward system like Rimonabant.

Further studies validate THCV’s potential as a safer appetite suppressant and explain that THCV alters brain connections in such a way that “THCV could allow greater control over food intake.”

THCV and diabetes

Not only can THCV’s appetite suppressing properties lead to weight loss, but THCV may also help with diabetes by regulating blood sugar and insulin levels. THCV appears to work best for type 2 diabetes, while CBD may be better for type 1, according to this study on THCV and diabetes. One may therefore want to try a blend of THCV and CBD for diabetes and weight loss.

Another benefit of CBD is that it may combat the munchie-producing effects of THC (when combined with THCV).

This experiment on mice found that those fed a pure THCV extract ate less and lost significant amounts of weight. Mice fed a THCV extract that also contained THC did not eat less or lose weight. To reverse THC’s effect, those mice were given CBD and proceeded to eat less and lose weight.

In addition to THCV, Rare Cannabinoid Company offers CBN, CBG, CBC, CBDA and CBD oils and blends.

THCV for anxiety and addiction

In addition to weight loss, THCV has shown great potential in decreasing drug abuse and addiction and is highly effective in the management of stress, anxiety, PTSD and can even prevent panic attacks, according to Steep Hill laboratories.

This study found THCV has anti-psychotic effects and may help with schizophrenia.

THCV versus THC and does THCV get you high?

Despite so much history, hype and scientific evidence around THCV’s benefits, it’s surprisingly hard to find THCV for sale and products that claim to be THCV usually aren’t. Many are full spectrum CBD or THC oils.

Like CBD, THCV does not get you high (at least at normal doses). Meanwhile, THC is intoxicating and increases hunger rather than reducing it. THCV also costs far more to produce than CBD or THC.

Lab-tested THCV for sale

Whenever you purchase CBD or minor cannabinoids, you should always check the lab report and compare the milligrams listed to the weight of the product to understand the actual dosing.

At least for now, Rare Cannabinoid Company is the only brand producing a true, purified THCV oil and a clearly dosed one-to-one blend with CBD. See third-party lab test results here. You can shop for THCV with free U.S. shipping and 15% off auto-ship subscriptions now.

Rare Cannabinoid Company is the sister brand of Hawaiian Choice, Hawaii’s most popular CBD company. Hawaiian Choice products – CBD tinctures, topicals and edibles infused with organic Hawaiian fruits and essential oils – are sold in more than 200 locations from New York to Tokyo.