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Weed seed control technology will be on full display at this year's Farm Progress Show Aug. 30-Sept. 1. Learn the latest strategies from Iowa State University Extension and Outreach. Governor Hochul announced the first-in-the-nation Seeding Opportunity Initiative, which will position individuals with prior cannabis-related criminal offenses to make the first adult-use cannabis sales with products grown by New York farmers. When you hear weed specialists toss around the terms large-seeded weeds and small-seeded weeds, you might wonder which

Weed Seed Destructor and Other Control Methods to Be Showcased

AMES, Iowa – Controlling weeds in farm fields is an annual challenge – especially with more weeds becoming resistant to herbicides.

Fortunately, producers have a wide range of options to counter weeds, including some creative ways that may not have been employed in the past.

At this year’s Farm Progress Show, Aug. 30-Sept. 1 in Boone, Iowa State University Extension and Outreach will showcase one of the more innovative, and practical methods of controlling weeds: a weed seed destructor.

Fitted to a combine, the weed seed destructor does what it’s name implies. It pulverizes and destroys seeds so that they cannot germinate.

The weed seed destructor (by Redekop) will be attached to the back of a John Deere 680 combine and will be available for viewing outside the ISU Extension and Outreach tent. While the machine will not be operating during the show, visitors can see it in operation on a computer screen, and they can ask questions of weed science experts.

“We want to give the public a chance to see and ask about this innovative form of weed control technology,” said Prashant Jha, professor and extension weed specialist at Iowa State. “Farmers in central Iowa and in Harrison County are already using this technology and we expect more will do so in the coming years.”

Other methods of weed control will also be featured, including videos of chaff lining, a method that guides the harvested chaff into narrow bands as it flows out the back of the combine at harvest, which reduces the spread of weed seeds by more than 95% across the fields and contains weed seeds in smaller spaces.

The harvester or combine is modified with a baffle that separates the chaff (containing the majority of weed seeds) from the straw. The chaff is directed into narrow central bands using a chute at the rear of the combine.

Weed seeds in the chaff are subjected to decay, and burial of small-seeded weed species such as waterhemp in the chaff will potentially result in reduced emergence in the subsequent growing season. High application rates of herbicides or shielded sprayers can be used to selectively control emerged weeds in those narrow bands in the field.

The weed control display will also allow visitors the chance to test their knowledge of weed specimens found in the Midwest. Sixteen different species will be available for visitors to identify.

Visitors will also have the chance to learn more about waterhemp, and how it can be suppressed using cereal rye as a cover crop. Photos and sample trays will show the results of using no rye, rye terminated at 4-6 inches tall, and rye terminated close to heading.

“We’re going to be showing the potential for biomass (cover crops) to suppress weeds like waterhemp, and how the results vary based on the height of the cover crop,” said Jha.

Cereal rye has the best potential to suppress weeds because it accumulates more biomass than other cover crop species. A study that was done for the Farm Progress Show shows an incremental decrease in waterhemp based on the density of rye.

Field studies indicate cereal rye biomass of 4,500 to 5,000 pounds per acre at termination can significantly suppress waterhemp emergence in soybeans, and reduce the size and density of waterhemp at the time of exposure to postemergence herbicides.

Additionally, producers can view a map of where herbicide resistance has been documented in Iowa based on the recent survey, and ask questions to Jha and other specialists about their own experience with herbicide-resistant weeds.

Jha will be joined at the show by ISU Extension and Outreach field agronomists Angie Rieck-Hintz, Meaghan Anderson, Gentry Sorenson and Mike Witt and several weed science graduate students.

Governor Hochul Announces The Office of Cannabis Management Seeding Opportunity Initiative

Governor Kathy Hochul today announced the first-in-the-nation Seeding Opportunity Initiative, which will position individuals with prior cannabis-related criminal offenses to make the first adult-use cannabis sales with products grown by New York farmers. This farm-to-store initiative makes sales in New York possible before the end of 2022, jumpstarts New York’s Cannabis Industry, guarantees support for future equity applicants, and secures an early investment into communities most impacted by the disproportionate enforcement of cannabis prohibition.

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“New York State is making history, launching a first-of-its-kind approach to the cannabis industry that takes a major step forward in righting the wrongs of the past,” Governor Hochul said. “The regulations advanced by the Cannabis Control Board today will prioritize local farmers and entrepreneurs, creating jobs and opportunity for communities that have been left out and left behind. I’m proud New York will be a national model for the safe, equitable and inclusive industry we are now building.”

The Cannabis Control Board at its meeting today advanced two components of the Seeding Opportunity Initiative.

First, it advanced to public comment regulations for Conditional Adult-Use Retail Dispensaries. As part of the Seeding Opportunity Initiative, this subset of dispensaries must be owned by equity-entrepreneurs with a prior cannabis-related criminal offense who also have a background owning and operating a small business. They will be the first to open and make sales in New York State, establishing equity-owned businesses at the front-end of New York’s adult-use market.

Second, the Board approved a license application for hemp farmers seeking to grow adult-use cannabis this spring – called the Adult-Use Conditional Cultivator License. The license was made possible by legislation Governor Hochul signed last month. The Board designated March 15 as the opening date for the application portal.

Cannabis Control Board Chair Tremaine Wright said, “Our state’s Cannabis Law sets a high goal for creating an equitable industry that puts New Yorkers first. The Seeding Opportunity Initiative puts us on a path for achieving that goal and hopefully models a way forward for reaching those goals while building a stable market. I am thankful for the support of Governor Hochul and the Legislature, which made it possible for us to get this initiative off the ground quickly, establish a supply chain from our farmers to equity, retailers, and generate the resources to help revitalize communities that were harmed by the disproportionate enforcement of cannabis prohibition.”

Cannabis Control Board Member Jen Metzger said, “The Seeding Opportunity Initiative truly sets New York’s program apart from other states that have legalized adult-use, by starting out of the gate with an equity- and sustainability-led program that will supply equity entrepreneur-owned dispensaries with sun-grown cannabis products, It is a great start to building a new industry in which small businesses can thrive and generational wealth can be created.”

Adam Perry, Cannabis Control Board Member said, “Shaping the New York cannabis industry and putting social equity entrepreneurs at the forefront is a historic opportunity to address the harm caused by cannabis prohibition and fully implement the goals of New York’s Cannabis Law. This is the right start for the industry and I look forward to continuing to work with our team to support all license types to ensure we’re not only delivering licenses to social equity entrepreneurs, but also setting them up for success over the long-haul.”

Jessica Garcia, Cannabis Control Board Member said, “Positioning justice-involved equity-entrepreneurs as the first to make sales puts New York on the right track to meet the goals of the New York Cannabis Law while providing protections to workers in the industry by creating pathways to union cannabis careers. This is a big, first step forward for the cannabis industry we’re building in New York – it’s an important one and it’s only the beginning.”

Reuben McDaniel, III, New York State Cannabis Control Board member and President and CEO of DASNY said, “Our work to create the new cannabis industry in New York is structured to develop successful entrepreneurs in black and brown communities across New York, expand access to capital for those who have been denied, and establish a cannabis industry that leads the nation in health and safety, and in equity, as well. We look forward to continuing our work with the Legislature to develop the funding mechanism that will support New York’s equity entrepreneurs in an exciting new sector of our economy.”

Office of Cannabis Management (OCM) Executive Director Chris Alexander said, “With the Seeding Opportunity Initiative, we are now on the path to doing what no state has done before: Put our farmers and equity entrepreneurs, not big, out of state businesses, at the forefront of the launch of our adult-use cannabis market. Thanks to the support of Governor Hochul and the action taken by the Board today, we’ve made a huge advancement in our efforts to prioritize New York’s small farmers, our equity entrepreneurs, and ultimately our goal to generate the resources that will support future equity applicants and drive investments into our communities most impacted by cannabis prohibition. We aren’t stopping here and work is already underway across all license types to open access to capital and develop supporting networks to build an equitable New York Cannabis Industry and setup our small businesses for long-term success.”

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Assembly Majority Leader Crystal Peoples-Stokes said, “With this announcement, we are doing what no other state has done by focusing on the people most criminalized by cannabis prohibition, and promoting New York farmers. The cannabis industry is going to grow our economy and create new wealth, and it is imperative that we make sure that opportunities begin with the most deserving New Yorkers. I commend Governor Hochul, the Cannabis Control Board, and the Office of Cannabis Management for taking these steps to implement the Marijuana Regulation and Taxation Act in a manner consistent with the intent of the legislation.”

Senator Liz Krueger said, “The initiatives announced by the Governor today will help to ensure that the equity and justice goals of the MRTA will be met, and that New York farmers and small businesses will serve as the foundation of the legal cannabis market. The MRTA was designed not only to end the failed war on drugs in New York, but specifically to take positive action to help rebuild those communities that were most harmed by prohibition. Offering the first retail licenses to people who have been convicted of marijuana-related offenses is a big step in the right direction, and will set the marketplace on a path where social equity applicants can compete successfully.”

The Seeding Opportunity Initiative is composed of three programs:

  • Equity Owners Lead Program : Provides a Conditional Adult-Use Retail Dispensary License to eligible equity-entrepreneur applicants, putting them at the front-end of the adult-use market. This first-round, equity-licensing opportunity will be supported with renovated or renovation-ready retail locations and wraparound services with dispensaries sited in high-traffic areas.

Applications for these priority licenses will open in the Summer of 2022. The first licenses are expected to be distributed by late summer or early fall 2022. This positions equity-entrepreneur-owned dispensaries to make the first adult-use cannabis sales in New York State by the end of 2022 while speeding the delivery of investments into communities across the state that were most impacted by the disproportionate enforcement of cannabis prohibition.

The Board today directed the OCM to post for public comment the proposed regulations for the Conditional Adult-Use Retail Dispensary License. Under the proposed regulations, to be eligible for this initial license, applicants must:

  • Have a cannabis-related offense that occurred prior to the passage of the Marijuana Regulation and Tax Act (MRTA) on March 31, 2021 , or had a parent, guardian, child, spouse, or dependent with a pre-MRTA cannabis offense in the State of New York.
  • Have experience owning and operating a qualifying business in the State of New York.

Additionally, the regulations include information for what application materials will be needed to apply for a Conditional Adult-Use Retail Dispensary License and sets the parameters for how the Office will review and evaluate applications. A subsequent regulation package will outline the requirements for safely operating a retail dispensary.

  • Farmers First Program : Provides an Adult-Use Conditional Cultivator License to eligible New York cannabinoid hemp farmers, giving them the first chance to grow cannabis for New York’s adult-use market. Farmers must adhere to quality assurance, health, and safety requirements developed by the OCM. They must also take part in sustainability and equity mentorship programs that will help build the first generation of equity cannabis owners across the entire supply chain. These conditional licenses make it possible for farmers to grow cannabis in the 2022 growing season.

The Board today approved the application for the Adult-Use Conditional Cultivator License and set the opening of the application portal for March 15. The license was made possible by legislation recently signed by Governor Hochul on February 22. Further information on eligibility requirements and what’s allowed with the license can be found here .

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Heed Weed Seed Size

When you hear weed specialists toss around the terms “large-seeded weeds” and “small-seeded weeds,” you might wonder which are which and what difference it makes? Good questions.

“Weed seed size comes into play in particular with no-till and strip-till,” points out University of Wisconsin weed scientist Chris Boerboom. “With those systems, large-size weed seeds don’t get incorporated and therefore don’t germinate well. For example, velvetleaf, a medium- to larger-seeded weed, becomes much less of a problem in no-till farming.”

In contrast, Boerboom notes, small-seeded weeds and annual grasses, if not managed, can become more prevalent in no-till and strip-till. That’s because they’re able to germinate near the surface.

“When the seeds of large-seeded weeds lie on the surface, as they do with no-till, they make only one flush and are easier to control with a single herbicide application,” explains Jeff Stachler, weed scientist at Ohio State University. “Also, since they are on the surface, they are more likely to be eaten by rodents, insects and birds. Over time, because of predation, good weed control, and lack of incorporation, the number of large-seeded weeds declines in no-till fields.”

But small-size weed seeds in no-till fields usually get incorporated by rainfall, tire tracks and other natural soil disturbances just enough to germinate, Stachler explains. Thus, they become dominant weeds.

When fields are tilled, large-seeded weed seed gets incorpo-rated. That allows them to germinate better and over a longer period of time, says Stachler. But small-seeded weeds, when incorporated by tillage, become less competitive because they’re pushed below their optimum germination level, he points out.

Germination and growth patterns of medium-seeded types, says Stachler, fall between the large and small.

In general, he adds, large-seeded weeds are more competitive on a per-plant basis than small- or medium-seeded weeds. “The larger seeds tend to germinate faster because of more energy, and they tend to be larger weeds,” he notes. “It may take four to eight times as many small-seeded weeds to be as competitive as a single large-seeded weed.

“On the other hand, small-seeded weeds like pigweeds and lambsquarters tend to produce more seeds per plant and can spread faster,” Stachler says. “That’s the reason they can take over so quickly in no-till if not properly controlled.”

Herbicide-wise, soil-applied products such as dinitroanilines (Prowl, trifluralins), acetamides (Harness, Dual II Magnum, Lasso, etc.) and pigment inhibitors (Command, Balance, Callisto) are the most effective for small-seeded weeds, says Stachler. Except for the few products that need incorpo-ration, all can be used with no-till.

Pre-emergence PPO inhibitors (Authority, Valor, etc.) control mostly small- and medium-seeded weeds. “To control large-seeded weeds with pre-emergence products, go with triazines or ALS-inhibitors, assuming there is not a resistance problem,” Stachler advises. “They also get medium- and small-seeded weeds.”

As a rule, large-seeded weeds are more difficult to control with pre-emergence herbicides than are small-seeded weeds, notes Wisconsin’s Boerboom. “That’s partly because they emerge from a greater depth and don’t take up as much herbicide as do those weeds that germinate near the surface. We can usually control large-seeded weeds more effectively with post products.”

Boerboom points out that most pre-emergence grass killers, especially for corn, also are touted to help control small-seeded broadleaf weeds. But, he says it’s important to keep in mind that their control can vary depending on the broad-leaf. When those grass herbicides are premixed with atrazine, control is good and consistent for most small-seeded broadleaves.

Weeds And Their Seed Sizes

The following list of broadleaf and grass weeds, found in the Midwest, comes from Ohio State University:

Large-seeded broadleaf weeds: common cocklebur, giant ragweed, the morningglories, common sunflower and burcucumber.

Medium-seeded broadleaf weeds: common ragweed, velvetleaf, jimsonweed, smartweed, Canada thistle, kochia and common dandelion.

Small-seeded broadleaf weeds: pigweeds (including waterhemp), lambsquarters, eastern black nightshade, marestail, field pennycress, chickweed, purple deadnettle, wild mustard and shepherd’s-purse.

Large-seeded grass weeds: shattercane, johnsongrass, field sandbur, woolly cupgrass, downy brome and wild oats.

Medium-seeded grass weeds: foxtails, barnyardgrass and wild proso millet.

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